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Affective disorders and risk of developing dementia: systematic review

  • Joaquim da Silva (a1), Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira (a2), Miguel Xavier (a2) and Elizabeta B. Mukaetova-Ladinska (a3)



Affective disorders are associated with cognitive disturbances but their role as risk factors for dementia is still not fully investigated.


To evaluate the risk of developing dementia in individuals with a history of affective disorder.


We conducted a systematic review of case-control and cohort studies addressing the risk of developing dementia in people with affective disorders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that has included studies evaluating this risk specifically in people with bipolar disorder.


Fifty-one studies were included. Most of the studies found an increased risk for developing dementia in individuals with depression. Greater frequency and severity of depressive episodes seem to increase this risk. The evidence is contradictory regarding whether there is a difference in risk in people with early- or late-onset depression. The few available risk estimates for dementia in people with bipolar disorder suggest an even higher risk than for those with depression.


Affective disorders appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing dementia, and one that is dependent on clinical and demographic variables. Depression may be both a prodrome and a risk factor for dementia. Future research should aim to elucidate the mechanisms that mediate these links.

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Corresponding author

Joaquim da Silva, Department of Mental Health and CEDOC, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, FCM, UNL, Campo Mártires da Pátria, 130, 1169-056 Lisbon, Portugal. Email:


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Affective disorders and risk of developing dementia: systematic review

  • Joaquim da Silva (a1), Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira (a2), Miguel Xavier (a2) and Elizabeta B. Mukaetova-Ladinska (a3)


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Affective disorders and risk of developing dementia: systematic review

  • Joaquim da Silva (a1), Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira (a2), Miguel Xavier (a2) and Elizabeta B. Mukaetova-Ladinska (a3)
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