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Bipolar disorder and addictions: The elephant in the room

  • Paul R. A. Stokes (a1), Nicola J. Kalk (a1) and Allan H. Young (a1)
Summary

Addictions are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder and greatly affect clinical outcomes. In this editorial, we review the evidence that addictions are a key challenge in bipolar disorder, examine putative neurobiological mechanisms, and reflect on the limited clinical trial evidence base with suggestions for treatment strategies and further developments.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Dr Paul Stokes, Clinical Senior Lecturer in Mood Disorders, Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (loPPN), Room E2.06, PO72 De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK. Email: paul.r.stokes@kcl.ac.uk
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This report represents independent research funded by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

Declaration of interest

P.R.A.S. has received support for research, expenses to attend conferences and fees for lecturing and consultancy work (including attending an advisory board) from life sciences companies including Corcept Therapeutics, Indivior and Liva Nova. He is a consultant psychiatrist within a tertiary level specialist service and a specialist consultant advisor in mood disorders for the UK Civil Aviation Authority. N.J.K. has received funding for educational activities, including travel expenses, and research expenses during her PhD (2010–2013) from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), as her PhD was funded by a Wellcome Trust GSK Translational Medicine Training Fellowship. A.H.Y. has been commissioned to give lectures and is on advisory boards for all major pharmaceutical companies with drugs used in affective and related disorders. He was the lead Investigator for Embolden Study (AstraZeneca), BCI Neuroplasticity study and Aripiprazole Mania Study. He has been involved in investigator initiated studies from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck and Wyeth. A.H.Y. has been awarded research grants from: National Institute of Mental Health (USA); Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Canada); National Association for Research on Schizophrenia And Depression (USA); Stanley Medical Research Institute (USA); Medical Research Council (UK); Wellcome Trust (UK); Royal College of Physicians (Edinburgh, UK); British Medical Association (UK); UBC-VGH Foundation (Canada); Western Economic Development Council (Canada); Coast Capital Savings Depression Research Fund (Canada); Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (Canada); National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (UK).

Footnotes
References
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The British Journal of Psychiatry
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  • EISSN: 1472-1465
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Bipolar disorder and addictions: The elephant in the room

  • Paul R. A. Stokes (a1), Nicola J. Kalk (a1) and Allan H. Young (a1)
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