1Jacqmin-Gadda, H, Alperovitch, A, Montlahuc, C, Commenges, D, Leffondre, K, Dufouil, C, et al. 20-Year prevalence projections for dementia and impact of preventive policy about risk factors. Eur J Epidemiol 2013; 28: 493–502.
2Whitmer, RA, Gustafson, DR, Barrett-Connor, E, Haan, MN, Gunderson, EP, Yaffe, K. Central obesity and increased risk of dementia more than three decades later. Neurology 2008; 71: 1057–64.
3van Vliet, P. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline. J Alzheimers Dis 2012; 30: S147–S62.
4Birns, J, Kalra, L. Cognitive function and hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 2009; 23: 86–96.
5Bordier, L, Doucet, J, Boudet, J, Bauduceau, B. Update on cognitive decline and dementia in elderly patients with diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2014; 40: 331–7.
6Tegeler, C, O'Sullivan, JL, Bucholtz, N, Goldeck, D, Pawelec, G, Steinhagen-Thiessen, E, et al. The inflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, and IL-10 are associated with cognitive function-data from the Berlin Aging Study II. Neurobiol Aging 2016; 38: 112–7.
7Dik, MG, Jonker, C, Comijs, HC, Deeg, DJH, Kok, A, Yaffe, K, et al. Contribution of metabolic syndrome components to cognition in older individuals. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 2655–60.
8Tuligenga, RH, Dugravot, A, Tabak, AG, Elbaz, A, Brunner, EJ, Kivimaki, M, et al. Midlife type 2 diabetes and poor glycaemic control as risk factors for cognitive decline in early old age: a post-hoc analysis of the Whitehall II cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014; 2: 228–35.
9Pan, A, Keum, N, Okereke, OI, Sun, Q, Kivimaki, M, Rubin, RR, et al. Bidirectional association between depression and metabolic syndrome a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Diabetes Care 2012; 35: 1171–80.
10Ownby, RL, Crocco, E, Acevedo, A, John, V, Loewenstein, D. Depression and risk for Alzheimer disease - systematic review, meta-analysis, and metaregression analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 530–8.
11Rock, PL, Roiser, JP, Riedel, WJ, Blackwell, AD. Cognitive impairment in depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med 2014; 44: 2029–40.
12Mirza, SS, Wolters, FJ, Swanson, SA, Koudstaal, PJ, Hofman, A, Tiemeier, H, et al. 10-year trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: a population-based study. Lancet Psychiatry 2016; 3: 628–35.
13Hofman, A, Murad, SD, van Duijn, CM, Franco, OH, Goedegebure, A, Ikram, MA, et al. The Rotterdam Study: 2014 objectives and design update. Eur J Epidemiol 2013; 28: 889–926.
14Beekman, ATF, Deeg, DJH, VanLimbeek, J, Braam, AW, DeVries, MZ, VanTilburg, W. Criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D): Results from a community-based sample of older subjects in the Netherlands. Psychol Med 1997; 27: 231–5.
15Hoogendam, YY, Hofman, A, van der Geest, JN, van der Lugt, A, Ikram, MA. Patterns of cognitive function in aging: the Rotterdam Study. Eur J Epidemiol 2014; 29: 133–40.
16Houx, PJ, Jolles, J, Vreeling, FW. Stroop interference: aging effects assessed with the Stroop color-word test. Exp Aging Res 1993; 19: 209–24.
17Welsh, KA, Butters, N, Mohs, RC, Beekly, D, Edland, S, Fillenbaum, G, et al. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part V. A normative study of the neuropsychological battery. Neurology 1994; 44: 609–14.
18Bleecker, ML, Bollawilson, K, Agnew, J, Meyers, DA. Age-related sex-differences in verbal memory. J Clin Psychol 1988; 44: 403–11.
19Tiffin, J, Asher, EJ. The Purdue pegboard; norms and studies of reliability and validity. J Appl Psychol 1948; 32: 234–47.
20Alberti, KGMM, Eckel, RH, Grundy, SM, Zimmet, PZ, Cleeman, JI, Donato, KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 2009; 120: 1640–5.
21Koolhaas, CM, Dhana, K, Golubic, R, Schoufour, JD, Hofman, A, van Rooij, FJA, et al. Physical activity types and coronary heart disease risk in middle-aged and elderly persons. Am J Epidemiol 2016; 183: 729–38.
22Marmot, M, Brunner, E. Cohort profile: the Whitehall II study. Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34: 251–6.
23Nicholson, A, Fuhrer, R, Marmot, M. Psychological distress as a predictor of CHD events in men: the effect of persistence and components of risk. Psychosom Med 2005; 67: 522–30.
24Heim, AW. AH 4 group test of general intelligence. NFER-Nelson, 1970.
25Borkowski, JG, Benton, A, Spreen, O. Word fluency and brain damage. Neuropsychologia 1967; 5: 135–40.
26Akbaraly, TN, Kivimaki, M, Shipley, MJ, Tabak, AG, Jokela, M, Virtanen, M, et al. Metabolic syndrome over 10 years and cognitive functioning in late midlife the Whitehall II study. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 84–9.
27Kraemer, HC, Stice, E, Kazdin, A, Offord, D, Kupfer, D. How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 848–56.
28.Bollen, KA. Structural Equations with Latent Variables. Wiley, 1989.
29McArdle, JJ. Latent variable modeling of differences and changes with longitudinal data. Annu Rev Psychol 2009; 60: 577–605.
30Preacher, KJ, Hayes, AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behav Res Methods 2008; 40: 879–91.
31Marsh, HW. In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) findings. Struct Equ Modeling 2004; 11: 320–41.
32Muthén LKaM, B.O. Mplus User's Guide (7th edn). Muthén & Muthén, 2012.
33Singh-Manoux, A, Fayosse, A, Sabia, S, Canonico, M, Bobak, M, Elbaz, A, et al. Atrial fibrillation as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Eur Heart J 2017; 38: 2612–8.
34Danna, SM, Graham, E, Burns, RJ, Deschenes, SS, Schmitz, N. Association between depressive symptoms and cognitive function in persons with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0160809.
35Sullivan, MD, Katon, WJ, Lovato, LC, Miller, ME, Murray, AM, Horowitz, KR, et al. Association of depression with accelerated cognitive decline among patients with type 2 diabetes in the ACCORD-MIND trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70: 1041–7.
36Katon, WJ, Lin, EHB, Williams, LH, Ciechanowski, P, Heckbert, SR, Ludman, E, et al. Comorbid depression is associated with an increased risk of dementia diagnosis in patients with diabetes: a prospective cohort study. J Gen Intern Med 2010; 25: 423–9.
37Katon, W, Lyles, CR, Parker, MM, Karter, AJ, Huang, ES, Whitmer, RA. Association of depression with increased risk of dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Aging Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012; 69: 410–7.
38Musselman, DL, Evans, DL, Nemeroff, CB. The relationship of depression to cardiovascular disease - Epidemiology, biology, and treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55: 580–92.
39Epel, ES. Psychological and metabolic stress: a recipe for accelerated cellular aging? Hormones (Athens)- 2009; 8: 7–22.
40Vogelzangs, N, Beekman, ATF, Dortland, A, Schoevers, RA, Giltay, EJ, de Jonge, P, et al. Inflammatory and metabolic dysregulation and the 2-year course of depressive disorders in antidepressant users. Neuropsychopharmacology 2014; 39: 1624–34.
41McEwen, BS. Mood disorders and allostatic load. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54: 200–7.
42Lesage, A. Heuristic model of depressive disorders as systemic chronic disease. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2015; 24: 309–11.
43Juster, RP, McEwen, BS, Lupien, SJ. Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010; 35: 2–16.
44Liu, CS, Carvalho, AF, McIntyre, RS. Towards a “metabolic” subtype of major depressive disorder: shared pathophysiological mechanisms may contribute to cognitive dysfunction. CNS Neurol Disord-Drug Targets 2014; 13: 1693–707.