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Cognitive and neurophysiological markers of ADHD persistence and remission

  • Celeste H. M. Cheung (a1), Fruhling Rijsdijk (a2), Gráinne McLoughlin (a2), Daniel Brandeis (a3), Tobias Banaschewski (a4), Philip Asherson (a2) and Jonna Kuntsi (a2)...

Abstract

Background

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists in around two-thirds of individuals in adolescence and early adulthood.

Aims

To examine the cognitive and neurophysiological processes underlying the persistence or remission of ADHD.

Method

Follow-up data were obtained from 110 young people with childhood ADHD and 169 controls on cognitive, electroencephalogram frequency, event-related potential (ERP) and actigraph movement measures after 6 years.

Results

ADHD persisters differed from remitters on preparation-vigilance measures (contingent negative variation, delta activity, reaction time variability and omission errors), IQ and actigraph count, but not on executive control measures of inhibition or working memory (nogo-P3 amplitudes, commission errors and digit span backwards).

Conclusions

Preparation-vigilance measures were markers of remission, improving concurrently with ADHD symptoms, whereas executive control measures were not sensitive to ADHD persistence/remission. For IQ, the present and previous results combined suggest a role in moderating ADHD outcome. These findings fit with previously identified aetiological separation of the cognitive impairments in ADHD. The strongest candidates for the development of non-pharmacological interventions involving cognitive training and neurofeedback are the preparation-vigilance processes that were markers of ADHD remission.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Jonna Kuntsi, PhD, King's College London, MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London SE5 8AF, UK. Email: jonna.kuntsi@kcl.ac.uk

Footnotes

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Declaration of interest

T.B. has served as advisor or consultant for Bristol Myers-Squibb, Develco Pharma, Lilly, Medice, Novartis, Shire and Vifor Pharma; he has received conference attendance support and conference support or speakers honoraria from Janssen McNeil, Lilly, Medice, Novartis and Shire, and has been involved in clinical trials conducted by Lilly and Shire. P.A. has acted in an advisory role for Shire, Janssen-Cilag, Eli Lilly and Flynn Pharma. He has received education or research grants from Shire, Janssen-Cilag and Eli-Lilly. He has given talks at educational events sponsored by the above companies. The other authors report no conflicts of interest.

Footnotes

References

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Cognitive and neurophysiological markers of ADHD persistence and remission

  • Celeste H. M. Cheung (a1), Fruhling Rijsdijk (a2), Gráinne McLoughlin (a2), Daniel Brandeis (a3), Tobias Banaschewski (a4), Philip Asherson (a2) and Jonna Kuntsi (a2)...

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Cognitive and neurophysiological markers of ADHD persistence and remission

  • Celeste H. M. Cheung (a1), Fruhling Rijsdijk (a2), Gráinne McLoughlin (a2), Daniel Brandeis (a3), Tobias Banaschewski (a4), Philip Asherson (a2) and Jonna Kuntsi (a2)...
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