1Akiskal, HS. Subaffective disorders: dysthymic, cyclothymic and bipolar II disorders in the ‘borderline’ realm. Psychiatr Clin North Ame 1981; 4: 25–46.
2Benazzi, F. A relationship between bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder? Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008; 32: 1022–9.
3American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). APA, 2013.
4Vieta, E, Berk, M, Schulze, TG, Carvalho, AF, Suppes, T, Calabrese, JR, et al. Bipolar disorders. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018; 4: 18008.
5Akiskal, HS. Demystifying borderline personality: critique of the concept and unorthodox reflections on its natural kinship with the bipolar spectrum. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004; 110: 401–7.
6Akiskal, HS, Chen, SE, Davis, GC, Puzantian, VR, Kashgarian, M, Bolinger, JM. Borderline: an adjective in search of a noun. J Clin Psychiatry 1985; 46: 41–8.
7Zanarini, MC, Vujanovic, AA, Parachini, EA, Boulanger, JL, Frankenburg, FR, Hennen, J. A screening measure for BPD: the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD). J Pers Disord 2003; 17(6): 568–73.
8Coid, JW. An affective syndrome in psychopaths with borderline personality disorder? Br J Psychiatry 1993; 162: 641–50.
9Corrigan, FM, Davidson, A, Heard, H. The role of dysregulated amygdalic emotion in borderline personality disorder. Med Hypotheses 2000; 54: 574–9.
10Glenn, CR, Klonsky, ED. Emotion dysregulation as a core feature of borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord 2009; 23(1): 20–8.
11Linehan, MM. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford Press, 1993.
12Reisch, T, Ebner-Priemer, UW, Tschacher, W, Bohus, M, Linehan, MM. Sequences of emotions in patients with borderline personality disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2010; 118: 42–8.
13Henry, C, Mitropoulou, V, New, AS, Koenigsberg, HW, Silverman, J, Siever, LJ. Affective instability and impulsivity in borderline personality and bipolar II disorders: similarities and differences. J Psychiatr Res 2001; 35(6): 307–12.
14Koenigsberg, HW. Affective instability: toward an integration of neuroscience and psychological perspectives. J Pers Disord 2010; 24(1): 60–82.
15Gunderson, JG, Weinberg, I, Daversa, MT, Kueppenbender, KD, Zanarini, MC, Shea, MT, et al. Descriptive and longitudinal observations on the relationship of borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 1173–8.
16Zimmerman, M, Morgan, TA. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2013; 15: 155–69.
17Pereira, LP, Köhler, CA, De Sousa, RT, Solmi, M, De Freitas, BP, Fornaro, M, et al. The relationship between genetic risk variants with brain structure and function in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of genetic-neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017; 79(April): 87–109.
18McDermid, J, Sareen, J, El-Gabalawy, R, Pagura, J, Spiwak, R, Enns, MW. Co-morbidity of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Compr Psychiatry 2015; 58: 18–28.
19Yen, S, Frazier, E, Hower, H, Weinstock, LM, Topor, DR, Hunt, J, et al. Borderline personality disorder in transition age youth with bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2015; 132: 270–80.
20de la Rosa, I, Oquendo, MA, García, G, Stanley, B, González-Pinto, A, Liu, S-M, et al. Determining if borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are alternative expressions of the same disorder: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 2017; 78(8): e994–9.
21Walsh, MA, DeGeorge, DP, Barrantes-Vidal, N, Kwapil, TR. A 3-year longitudinal study of risk for bipolar spectrum psychopathology. J Abnorm Psychol 2015; 124: 486–97.
22Ruggero, CJ, Zimmerman, M, Chelminski, I, Young, D. Borderline personality disorder and the misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. Psychiatry 2011; 44: 405–8.
23Gunderson, JG, Phillips, A. A current view of the interface between borderline personality disorder and depression. Am J Psychiatry 1991; 148: 967–75.
24Paris, J, Black, DW. Borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis 2015; 203: 3–7.
25Wise, T, Radua, J, Via, E, Cardoner, N, Abe, O, Adams, TM, et al. Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 2017; 22(10): 1455–63.
26Ganzola, R, Duchesne, S. Voxel-based morphometry meta-analysis of gray and white matter finds significant areas of differences in bipolar patients from healthy controls. Bipolar Disord 2017; 19: 74–83.
27Nunes, PM, Wenzel, A, Borges, KT, Porto, CR, Caminha, RM, de Oliveira, IR. Volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis. J Pers Disord 2009; 23(4): 333–45.
28Yang, X, Hu, L, Zeng, J, Tan, Y, Cheng, B. Default mode network and frontolimbic gray matter abnormalities in patients with borderline personality disorder: a voxel-based meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 34247.
29Rossi, R, Pievani, M, Lorenzi, M, Boccardi, M, Beneduce, R, Bignotti, S, et al. Structural brain features of borderline personality and bipolar disorders. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2013; 213(2): 83–91.
30Kempton, MJ, Salvador, Z, Munafò, MR, Geddes, JR, Simmons, A, Frangou, S, et al. Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder: meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011; 68(7): 675–90.
31Lim, L, Radua, J, Rubia, K. Gray matter abnormalities in childhood maltreatment: a voxel-wise meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2014; 8: 854–63.
32Norman, LJ, Carlisi, C, Lukito, S, Hart, H, Mataix-Cols, D, Radua, J, et al. Structural and functional brain abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparative meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 2016; 73(8): 815–25.
33Modinos, G, Costafreda, SG, van Tol, M-J, McGuire, PK, Aleman, A, Allen, P. Neuroanatomy of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: a quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Cortex 2013; 49(4): 1046–55.
34Bora, E, Fornito, A, Yücel, M, Pantelis, C. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 67(11): 1097–105.
35Schulze, L, Schmahl, C, Niedtfeld, I. Neural correlates of disturbed emotion processing in borderline personality disorder: a multimodal meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry 2016; 79(2): 97–106.
36Bruno, SD, Barker, GJ, Cercignani, M, Symms, M, Ron, MA. A study of bipolar disorder using magnetization transfer imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Brain 2004; 127(11): 2433–40.
37Radua, J, Rubia, K, Canales-Rodríguez, EJ, Pomarol-Clotet, E, Fusar-Poli, P, Mataix-Cols, D. Anisotropic kernels for coordinate-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies. Front Psychiatry 2014; 5: 13.
38Nakao, T, Radua, J, Rubia, K, Mataix-Cols, D. Gray matter volume abnormalities in ADHD: voxel-based meta-analysis exploring the effects of age and stimulant medication. Am J Psychiatry 2011; 168(11): 1154–63.
39Hart, H, Radua, J, Nakao, T, Mataix-Cols, D, Rubia, K. Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70(2): 185–98.
40Radua, J, Borgwardt, S, Crescini, A, Mataix-Cols, D, Meyer-Lindenberg, A, McGuire, PK, et al. Multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional brain changes in first episode psychosis and the effects of antipsychotic medication. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2012; 36(10): 2325–33.
41Radua, J, Mataix-Cols, D. Voxel-wise meta-analysis of grey matter changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 195(5): 393–402.
42Carlisi, CO, Norman, LJ, Lukito, SS, Radua, J, Mataix-cols, D, Rubia, K. Archival report comparative multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional brain abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2017; 82: 83–102.
43Pan, P, Zhan, H, Xia, M, Zhang, Y, Guan, D, Xu, Y. Aberrant regional homogeneity in Parkinson's disease: a voxel-wise meta-analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017; 72: 223–31.
44Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG. Controlling the risk of spurious findings from meta-regression. Stat Med 2004; 23(11): 1663–82.
45Ruocco, AC, Amirthavasagam, S, Zakzanis, KK. Amygdala and hippocampal volume reductions as candidate endophenotypes for borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2012; 201(3): 245–52.
46Coulston, CM, Tanious, M, Mulder, RT, Porter, RJ, Malhi, GS. Bordering on bipolar: the overlap between borderline personality and bipolarity. Aust New Zeal J Psychiatry 2012; 46(6): 506–21.
47Renaud, S, Corbalan, F, Beaulieu, S. Differential diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder type II and borderline personality disorder: analysis of the affective dimension. Compr Psychiatry 2012; 53(7): 952–61.
48Post, RM, Weiss, SRB. Sensitization and kindling phenomena in mood, anxiety, and obsessive–compulsive disorders: the role of serotonergic mechanisms in illness progression. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44(3): 193–206.
49Lima, IMM, Peckham, AD, Johnson, SL. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders: implications for emotion. Clin Psychol Rev 2018; 59: 126–36.
50Green, MJ, Cahill, CM, Malhi, GS. The cognitive and neurophysiological basis of emotion dysregulation in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2007; 103(1–3): 29–42.
51Zanarini, MC, Frankenburg, FR, Reich, DB, Silk, KR, Hudson, JI, McSweeney, LB. The subsyndromal phenomenology of borderline personality disorder: a 10-year follow-up study. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164: 929–35.
52Niedtfeld, I, Schulze, L, Krause-Utz, A, Demirakca, T, Bohus, M, Schmahl, C. Voxel-based morphometry in women with borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(6): e65824.
53Donegan, NH, Sanislow, CA, Blumberg, HP, Fulbright, RK, Lacadie, C, Skudlarski, P, et al. Amygdala hyperreactivity in borderline personality disorder: implications for emotional dysregulation. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54(11): 1284–93.
54O'Neill, A, Frodl, T. Brain structure and function in borderline personality disorder. Brain Struct Funct 2012; 217(4): 767–82.
55Rankin, KP, Salazar, A, Gorno-Tempini, ML, Sollberger, M, Wilson, SM, Pavlic, D, et al. Detecting sarcasm from paralinguistic cues: anatomic and cognitive correlates in neurodegenerative disease. Neuroimage 2009: 2005–15.
56Mark, J, Broadbent, K. Autobiographical memory in suicide attempters. J Abnor Psychol 1986; 95: 144–9.
57Soloff, PH, Pruitt, P, Sharma, M, Radwan, J, White, R, Diwadkar, VA. Structural brain abnormalities and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatr Res 2013; 46: 516–25.
58Tebartz van Elst, L, Hesslinger, B, Thiel, T, Geiger, E, Haegele, K, Lemieux, L, et al. Frontolimbic brain abnormalities in patients with borderline personality disorder: a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54: 163–71.
59New, AS, Hazlett, EA, Buchsbaum, MS, Goodman, M, Mitelman, SA, Newmark, R, et al. Amygdala-prefrontal disconnection in borderline personality disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007; 32: 1629–40.
60Hazlett, EA, Zhang, J, New, AS, Zelmanova, Y, Goldstein, KE, Haznedar, MM, et al. Potentiated amygdala response to repeated emotional pictures in borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2012; 72(6): 448–56.
61Phillips, ML, Ladouceur, CD, Drevets, WC. A neural model of voluntary and automatic emotion regulation: implications for understanding the pathophysiology and neurodevelopment of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2008; 13(9): 833–57.
62Li, J, Tang, Y, Womer, F, Fan, G, Zhou, Q, Sun, W, et al. Two patterns of anterior insular cortex functional connectivity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. World J Biol Psychiatry 2018; 19(sup3): S115–S123.
63Lochhead, RA, Parsey R, V, Oquendo, MA, Mann, JJ. Regional brain gray matter volume differences in patients with bipolar disorder as assessed by optimized voxel-based morphometry. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55(12): 1154–62.
64Brooks, JO III, Wang, PW, Bonner, JC, Rosen, AC, Hoblyn, JC, Hill, SJ, et al. Decreased prefrontal, anterior cingulate, insula, and ventral striatal metabolism in medication-free depressed outpatients with bipolar disorder. J Psychiatr Res 2009; 43(3): 181–8.
65Bechdolf, A, Wood, SJ, Nelson, B, Velakoulis, D, Yücel, M, Takahashi, T, et al. Amygdala and insula volumes prior to illness onset in bipolar disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2012; 201(1): 34–9.
66Bush, G, Luu, P, Posner, MI. Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends Cogn Sci 2000; 4(6): 215–22.
67Jones, EG. Cortical development and thalamic pathology in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1997; 23(3): 483–501.
68Womer, FY, Wang, L, Alpert, KI, Smith, MJ, Csernansky, JG, Barch, DM, et al. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2014; 223(2): 75–83.
69Chai, XJ, Whitfield-Gabrieli, S, Shinn, AK, Gabrieli, JDE, Nieto Castañón, A, McCarthy, JM, et al. Abnormal medial prefrontal cortex resting-state connectivity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011; 36: 2009–17.
70Strakowski, SM, Delbello, MP, Adler, CM. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a review of neuroimaging findings. Mol Psychiatry 2012; 10(1): 105–16.
71Nusslock, R, Almeida, JR, Forbes, EE, Versace, A, Frank, E, Labarbara, EJ, et al. Waiting to win: elevated striatal and orbitofrontal cortical activity during reward anticipation in euthymic bipolar disorder adults. Bipolar Disorder 2012; 14(3): 249–60.
72Öngür, D, Price, JL. The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans. Cereb Cortex 2000; 10(3): 206–19.
73Antoniadis, D, Samakouri, M, Livaditis, M. The association of bipolar spectrum disorders and borderline personality disorder. Psychiatr Q 2012; 83(4): 449–65.
74Diener, E, Sandvik, E, Larsen, RJ. Age and sex effects for emotional intensity. Dev Psychol 1985: 542–6.
75Brunner, R, Henze, R, Parzer, P, Kramer, J, Feigl, N, Lutz, K, et al. Reduced prefrontal and orbitofrontal gray matter in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder: is it disorder specific? Neuroimage 2010; 49(1): 114–20.
76Murray, EA, Wise, SP, Drevets, WC. Localization of dysfunction in major depressive disorder: prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala. Biol Psychiatry 2011; 69(12): e43–54.
77Volkow, ND, Wang, G-J, Ma, Y, Fowler, JS, Wong, C, Ding, Y-S, et al. Activation of orbital and medial prefrontal cortex by methylphenidate in cocaine-addicted subjects but not in controls: relevance to addiction. J Neurosci 2005; 25(15): 3932–9.
78Kantak, KM, Yager, LM, Brisotti, MF. Impact of medial orbital cortex and medial subthalamic nucleus inactivation, individually and together, on the maintenance of cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. Behav Brain Res 2013; 238: 1–9.
79Bergouignan, L, Chupin, M, Czechowska, Y, Kinkingnéhun, S, Lemogne, C, Le Bastard, G, et al. Can voxel based morphometry, manual segmentation and automated segmentation equally detect hippocampal volume differences in acute depression? Neuroimage 2009; 45(1): 29–37.
80Grimm, O, Pohlack, S, Cacciaglia, R, Winkelmann, T, Plichta, MM, Demirakca, T, et al. Amygdalar and hippocampal volume: a comparison between manual segmentation, Freesurfer and VBM. J Neurosci Methods 2015; 253: 254–61.
81Fletcher, K, Parker, G, Bayes, A, Paterson, A, McClure, G. Emotion regulation strategies in bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder: differences and relationships with perceived parental style. J Affect Disord 2014; 157: 52–9.
82Narita, K, Suda, M, Takei, Y, Aoyama, Y, Majima, T, Kameyama, M, et al. Volume reduction of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients with rapid cycling: a voxel-based morphometric study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011; 35(2): 439–45.
83Bassett, D. Borderline personality disorder and bipolar affective disorder. Spectra or spectre? A review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2012; 46(4): 327–39.
84Zanarini, MC, Frankenburg, FR, Hennen, J, Silk, KR. The longitudinal course of borderline psychopathology: 6-year prospective follow-up of the phenomenology of borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 274–83.
85Arnone, D, McKie, S, Elliott, R, Juhasz, G, Thomas, EJ, Downey, D, et al. State-dependent changes in hippocampal grey matter in depression. Mol Psychiatry 2012; 18: 1265.
86Wang, W-Y, Yu, J-T, Liu, Y, Yin, R-H, Wang, H-F, Wang, J, et al. Voxel-based meta-analysis of grey matter changes in Alzheimer's disease. Transl Neurodegener 2015; 4(1): 6.