American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J. & Gillberg, C. (1992) Can autism be detected at 18 months?: the needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839–843.
Chess, S. (1971) Autism in children with congenital rubella. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 33–47.
Cox, R. D. & Mesibov, G. B. (1995) Relationship between autism and learning disabilities. In Learning and Cognition in Autism (eds Schopler, E. & Mesibov, G. B.), pp. 57–70. New York: Plenum.
Ehlers, S. & Gillberg, C. (1993) The epidemiology of Asperger syndrome: a total population study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1327–1350.
Fombonne, E. & du Mazaubrun, C. (1992) Prevalence of infantile autism in four French regions. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 27, 203–210.
Frith, U. (1991) Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gillberg, C., Steffenburg, S. & Schaumann, H. (1991) Is autism more common now than ten years ago?
British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 403–409.
Kurita, H. (1985) Infantile autism with speech loss before the age of thirty months. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 191–196.
Johnson, M. H., Siddons, F., Frith, U., et al (1992) Can autism be predicted on the basis of infant screening tests?
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34, 316–320.
Lotter, V. (1966) Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. 1. Prevalence. Social Psychiatry, 1, 124–137.
Rutter, M. & Schopler, E. (1992) Classification of pervasive developmental disorders: some concepts and practical considerations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 459–482.
Stein, Z. & Susser, M. (1981) Methods in epidemiology. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 444–461.
Steinhausen, H-C., Göbel, D., Breinlinger, M., et al (1986) A community survey of infantile autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 186–189.
Sugiyama, T. & Abe, T. (1989) The prevalence of autism in Nagoya, Japan: a total population study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 87–96.
Tanoue, Y., Oda, S., Asano, F., et al (1988) Epidemiology of infantile autism in southern Ibaraki, Japan: differences in prevalence in birth cohorts. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 155–166.
Tsai, L. Y. (1992) Diagnostic issues in high-functioning autism. In High-Functioning Individuals with Autism (eds Schopler, E. & Mesibov, G. B.), pp. 11–40. New York: Plenum.
Volkmar, F. R., & Cohen, D. J. (1989) Disintegrative disorder or “late onset” autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 717–724.
Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., Siegel, B., et al (1994) Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM–IV. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1361–1367.
Wing, L. (1993) The definition and prevalence of autism: a review. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2, 61–74.
Wing, L. & Gould, J. (1979) Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–29.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (1993) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva: WHO.