Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Development and psychometric properties of the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability: Individual and carer supplement versions

  • Fiona M. Cuthill (a1), Colin A. Espie (a1) and Sally-Anne Cooper (a1)
Abstract
Background

There is no reliable and valid self-report measure of depressive symptoms for people with learning disabilities.

Aims

To develop a scale for individuals with learning disability, and a supplementary scale for carers.

Method

Items were generated from a range of assessment scales and through focus groups. A draft scale was piloted and field tested using matched groups of people with or without depression, and their carers. The scale was also administered to a group without learning disabilities for criterion validation.

Results

The Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability (GDS–LD) differentiated depression and non-depression groups, correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory – II (r=0.88), had good test – retest reliability (r=0.97) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.90), and a cut-off score (13) yielded 96% sensitivity and 90% specificity. The Carer Supplement was also reliable (r=0.98; α=0.88), correlating with the GDS–LD (r=0.93).

Conclusions

Both scales appear useful for screening, monitoring progress and contributing to outcome appraisal.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Development and psychometric properties of the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Development and psychometric properties of the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Development and psychometric properties of the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Professor Colin A. Espie, Department of Psychological Medicine, Gartnavel Royal Hospital, 1055 Great Western Road, Glasgow G12 0XH, UK. E-mail: c.espie@clinmed.gla.ac.uk
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A. & Brown, G. K. (1996) Beck Depression Inventory—II. San Antonio, CA: Harcourt Brace.
Benavidez, D. A. & Matson, J. L. (1993) Assessment of depression in mentally retarded adolescents. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 14, 179188.
Campbell, M. & Malone, R. P. (1991) Mental retardation and psychiatric disorders. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42, 374379.
Cooper, S. A. & Collacott, R. A. (1994) Clinical features and diagnostic criteria of depression in Down's syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 399403.
Dunn, L. I., Dunn, L., Whetton, C., et al (1997) British Picture Vocabulary Scale (2nd edn). Windsor: NFER–Nelson.
Eaton, L. F. & Menolascino, F. J. (1982) Psychiatric disorders in the mentally retarded: types, problems, and challenges. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 12971303.
Flynn, M. C. (1986) Adults who are mentally handicapped as consumers: issues and guidelines for interviewing. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 30, 369377.
Hamilton, M. (1960) A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 5661.
Kazdin, A. E., Matson, J. L. & Senatore, V. (1983) Assessment of depression in mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 10401043.
Kempton, W. (1988) Life Horizons . Physiological and Emotional Aspects of Being Male/Female (Sex Education for People with Special Needs). Santa Barbara, CA: James Stanfield.
Lindsay, W. R. & Michie, A. M. (1988) Adaptation of the Zung self-rating anxiety scale for people with a mental handicap. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 32, 485490.
Lindsay, W. R. & Michie, A. M., Baty, F. J., et al (1994) The consistency of reports about feelings and emotions from people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 38, 6166.
Meins, W. (1995) Symptoms of depression in mentally retarded adults. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 39, 4145.
Morgan, D. (1993) Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Moss, S. C., Ibbotson, B., Prosser, H., et al (1997) Validity of the PAS–ADD for detecting psychiatric symptoms in adults with learning disability. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 344354.
Moss, S. C., Emerson, E., Kiernan, C., et al (2000) Psychiatric symptoms in adults with learning disability and challenging behaviour. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 452456.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978) Psychometric Theory (2nd edn). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Prosser, H., Moss, S. C., Costello, H., et al (1996) The Mini-PAS–ADD. A Preliminary Assessment Schedule for the Detection of Mental Health Needs in Adults with Learning Disabilities. Manchester: University of Manchester, Hester Adrian Research Centre.
Royal College of Psychiatrists (2001) DC–LD: [Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Learning Disabilities/Mental Retardation] (Occasional Paper OP48). London: Gaskell.
Sovner, R. & Hurley, D. A. (1983) Do the mentally retarded suffer from affective illness? Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 6167.
Sturmey, P., Reed, R. & Corbett, J. (1991) Psychometric assessment of psychiatric disorders in people with learning disabilities (mental handicap): a review of measures. Psychological Medicine, 21, 143155.
World Health Organization (1994) International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (ICD–10). Geneva: WHO.
Wright, E. C. (1982) The presentation of mental illness in mentally retarded adults. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 496502.
Zung, W. W. K. (1965) A self-rating scale for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 6370.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Development and psychometric properties of the Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability: Individual and carer supplement versions

  • Fiona M. Cuthill (a1), Colin A. Espie (a1) and Sally-Anne Cooper (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *