1Walker, ER, McGee, RE, Druss, BG. Mortality in mental disorders and global disease burden implications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 2015; 72: 334–41.
2Thornicroft, G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: the scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 199: 441–2.
3Correll, CU, Solmi, M, Veronese, N, Bortolato, B, Rosson, S, Santonastaso, P, et al. Prevalence, incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with pooled and specific severe mental illness: a large-scale meta-analysis of 3,211,768 patients and 113,383,368 controls. World Psychiatry 2017; 16: 163–80.
4Gakidou, E, Afshin, A, Abajobir, AA, Abate, KH, Abbafati, C, Abbas, KM, et al. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016. Lancet 2017; 390: 1345–422.
5Lieberman, JA, Stroup, TS, McEvoy, JP, Swartz, MS, Rosenheck, RA, Perkins, DO, et al. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 1209–23.
6Galletly, CA, Castle, D, Dark, F, Humberstone, V, Jablensky, A, Killacky, E, et al. Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2016; 50: 1–117.
7Álvarez-Jiménez, M, González-Blanch, C, Crespo-Facorro, B, Hetrick, S, Rodriguez-Sánchez, JM, Pérez-Iglasias, R, et al. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain in chronic and first-episode psychotic disorders. CNS Drugs 2008; 22: 547–62.
8Correll, CU, Manu, P, Olshanskiy, V, Napolitano, B, Kane, JM, Malhotra, AK. Cardiometabolic risk of second-generation antipsychotic medications during first-time use in children and adolescents. JAMA 2009; 302: 1765–73.
9Vancampfort, D, Stubbs, B, Mitchell, AJ, De Hert, M, Wampers, M, Ward, PB, et al. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry 2015; 14: 339–47.
10Elman, I, Borsook, D, Lukas, SE. Food intake and reward mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia: implications for metabolic disturbances and treatment with second-generation antipsychotic agents. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31: 2091–120.
11Blouin, M, Tremblay, A, Jalbert, ME, Venables, H, Bouchard, RH, Roy, MA, et al. Adiposity and eating behaviors in patients under second generation antipsychotics. Obesity 2008; 16: 1780–7.
12Dipasquale, S, Pariante, CM, Dazzan, P, Aguglia, E, McGuire, P, Mondelli, V. The dietary pattern of patients with schizophrenia: a systematic review. J Psychiatr Res 2013; 47: 197–207.
13Stroup, DF, Berlin, JA, Morton, SC, Olkin, I, Williamson, GD, Rennie, D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. JAMA 2000; 283: 2008–12.
14Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, TG, Altman, D, Antes, G, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151: 264–9.
15Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Evidence Analysis Manual: Steps in the Academy Evidence Analysis Process. Evidence Analysis Library, 2016.
16Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, Higgins, JPT, Rothstein, HR. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2: 104. Biostat, 2005.
17DerSimonian, R, Laird, N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986; 7: 177–88.
18Orwin, RG. A fail-safe N for effect size in meta-analysis. J Educ Stat 1983; 8: 157–9.
19Adolfo, AB, AhnAllen, CG, Tidey, JW. Effects of smoking cues on caffeine urges in heavy smokers and caffeine consumers with and without schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2009; 107: 192–7.
20Amani, R. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects? BMC Psychiatry 2007; 7: 15.
21Archie, SM, Goldberg, JO, Akhtar-Danesh, N, Landeen, J, McColl, L, McNiven, J. Psychotic disorders, eating habits, and physical activity: who is ready for lifestyle changes? Psychiatr Serv 2007; 58: 233–9.
22Arrojo-Romero, M, Armas Barbazán, C, López-Moriñigo, JD, Ramos-Rios, R, Gurpegui, M, Martinez-Ortega, JM, et al. Caffeine consumption in a long-term psychiatric hospital: tobacco smoking may explain in large part the apparent association between schizophrenia and caffeine use. Schizophr Res 2015; 164: 234–41.
23Baethge, C, Tondo, L, Lepri, B, Baldessarini, RJ. Coffee and cigarette use: association with suicidal acts in 352 Sardinian bipolar disorder patients. Bipolar Disord 2009; 11: 494–503.
24Bly, MJ, Taylor, SF, Dalack, G, Pop-Busui, R, Burghardt, KJ, Evans, SJ, et al. Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: dietary and lifestyle factors compared to the general population. Bipolar Disord 2014; 16: 277–88.
25Bobes, J, Arango, C, Garcia-Garcia, M, Rejas, J. Healthy lifestyle habits and 10-year cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: an analysis of the impact of smoking tobacco in the CLAMORS schizophrenia cohort. Schizophr Res 2010; 119: 101–9.
26Brown, S, Birtwistle, J, Roe, L, Thompson, C. The unhealthy lifestyle of people with schizophrenia. Psychol Med 1999; 29: 697–701.
27Chang, YW, Assari, S, Prossin, AR, Stertz, L, McInnis, MG, Evans, SG. Bipolar disorder moderates associations between linoleic acid and markers of inflammation. J Psychiatr Res 2017; 85: 29–36.
28Clayton, EH, Hanstock, TL, Hirneth, SJ, Kable, CJ, Garg, ML, Hazell, PL. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blood of children and adolescents with juvenile bipolar disorder. Lipids 2008; 43: 1031–8.
29Ellingrod, VL, Taylor, SF, Brook, RD, Evans, SJ, Zölliner, SK, Grove, TB, et al. Dietary, lifestyle and pharmacogenetic factors associated with arteriole endothelial-dependent vasodilatation in schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs). Schizophr Res 2011; 130: 20–6.
30Elmslie, JL, Mann, JI, Silverstone, JT, Williams, SM, Romans, SE. Determinants of overweight and obesity in patients with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62: 486–91.
31Evans, SJ, Assari, S, Harrington, GJ, Chang, YW, Burant, CF, McInnis, MG. Plasma linoleic acid partially mediates the association of bipolar disorder on self-reported mental health scales. J Psychiatr Res 2015; 68: 61–7.
32Evans, SJ, Ringrose, RN, Harrington, GJ, Mancuso, P, Burant, CF, McInnis, MG. Dietary intake and plasma metabolomic analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in bipolar subjects reveal dysregulation of linoleic acid metabolism. J Psychiatr Res 2014; 57: 58–64.
33Fawzi, MH, Fawzi, MM, Said, NS, Fawzi, MM, Fouad, AA, Abdel-Moety, H. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and psychopathology status of Egyptian male patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2015; 225: 501–8.
34Fusar-Poli, P, De Marco, L, Cavallin, F, Bertorello, A, Nicolasi, M, Politi, P. Lifestyles and cardiovascular risk in individuals with functional psychoses. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2009; 45: 87–99.
35Gothelf, D, Falk, B, Singer, P, Kairi, M, Philliip, M, Zigel, L, et al. Weight gain associated with increased food intake and low habitual activity levels in male adolescent schizophrenic inpatients treated with olanzapine. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1055–7.
36Gupta, A, Craig, TK. Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia in high and low care supported housing. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 2009; 18: 200–7.
37Gurpegui, M, Aguilar, MC, Martinez-Ortega, JM, Diaz, FJ, de Leon, J. Caffeine intake in outpatients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2004; 30: 935–45.
38Gurpegui, M, Aguilar, MC, Martinez-Ortega, JM, Jurado, D, Diaz, FJ, Quintana, HM, et al. Fewer but heavier caffeine consumers in schizophrenia: a case-control study. Schizophr Res 2006; 86: 276–83.
39Hahn, LA, Galletly, CA, Foley, DL, Mackinnon, A, Watts, GF, Castle, DJ, et al. Inadequate fruit and vegetable intake in people with psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2014; 48: 1025–35.
40Hamera, E, Schneider, JK, Deviney, S. Alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine use and symptom distress in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 1995; 183: 559–65.
41Hardy, S, Gray, R. The secret food diary of a person diagnosed with schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2012; 19: 603–9.
42Haruyuki, ITO, Kumagai, T, Kimura, M, Kolke, S, Shimizu, T. Dietary intake in body mass index differences in community-based Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Iranian J Public Health 2015; 44: 639–45.
43Heald, A, Pendlebury, J, Anderson, S, Narayan, V, Guy, M, Gibson, M, et al. Lifestyle factors and the metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study. Ann Gen Psychiatry 2017; 16: 12.
44Henderson, DC, Borba, CP, Daley, TB, Boxill, R, Nguyen, DD, Culhane, MA, et al. Dietary intake profile of patients with schizophrenia. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2006; 18: 99–105.
45Henderson, DC, Cagliero, E, Copeland, PM, Borba, CP, Evins, E, Hayden, D, et al. Glucose metabolism in patients with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotic agents: a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 19–28.
46Jacka, FN, Pasco, JA, Mykletun, A, Williams, LJ, Nicholson, GC, Kotowicz, MA, et al. Diet quality in bipolar disorder in a population-based sample of women. J Affect Disord 2011; 129: 332–7.
47Jahrami, HA, Faris, MAE, Saif, ZQ, Hammad, LH. Assessing dietary and lifestyle risk factors and their associations with disease comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia: a case-control study from Bahrain. Asian J Psychiatr 2017; 28: 115–23.
48Kilbourne, AM, Rofey, DL, McCarthy, JF, Post, EP, Welsh, D, Blow, FC. Nutrition and exercise behavior among patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2007; 9: 443–52.
49Kilian, R, Becker, T, Krüger, L, Schmid, S, Frasch, K. Health behavior in psychiatric in-patients compared with a German general population sample. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006; 114: 242–8.
50Konarzewska, B, Stefańska, E, Wendolowicz, A, Cwalina, U, Golonko, A, Malus, A, et al. Visceral obesity in normal-weight patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 2014; 14: 35.
51Manzanares, N, Monseny, R, Ortega, L, Montalvo, I, Franch, J, Gutliérrez-Zotes, A, et al. Unhealthy lifestyle in early psychoses: the role of life stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2014; 39: 1–10.
52McCreadie, RG, Scottish Schizophrenia Lifestyle Group. Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in people with schizophrenia: descriptive study. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 183: 534–9.
53Mucheru, D, Hanlon, MC, Campbell, LE, McEvoy, M, MacDonald-Wicks, L. Social dysfunction and diet outcomes in people with psychosis. Nutrients 2017; 9: 80.
54Nenke, MA, Hahn, LA, Thompson, CH, Liu, D, Galletly, CA. Psychosis and cardiovascular disease: is diet the missing link? Schizophr Res 2015; 161: 465–70.
55Nunes, D, Eskinazi, B, Cambolm Rockett, F, Delgado, VB, Schwelgert Perry, ID. Nutritional status, food intake and cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with schizophrenia in southern Brazil: a case-control study. Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment 2014; 7: 72–9.
56Osborn, DP, Nazareth, I, King, MB. Physical activity, dietary habits and coronary heart disease risk factor knowledge amongst people with severe mental illness. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2007; 42: 787–93.
57Ratliff, JC, Palmese, LB, Reutenauer, EL, Liskov, E, Grilo, CM, Tek, C. The effect of dietary and physical activity pattern on metabolic profile in individuals with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study. Compr Psychiatry 2012; 53: 1028–33.
58Roick, C, FritzWieacker, A, Matschinger, H, Heider, D, Schindler, J, Riedel-Heller, S, et al. Health habits of patients with schizophrenia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2007; 42: 268–76.
59Ryan, MC, Flanagan, S, Kinsella, U, Keeling, F, Thakore, JH. The effects of atypical antipsychotics on visceral fat distribution in first episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia. Life Sci 2004; 74: 1999–2008.
60Ryan, MCM, Collins, P, Thakore, JH. Impaired fasting glucose tolerance in first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 284–9.
61Saarni, S, Saarni, SI, Fogelholm, M, Fogelholm, M, Heliövaara, M, Perälä, J, Suvisaari, J, et al. Body composition in psychotic disorders: a general population survey. Psychol Med 2009; 39: 801–10.
62Samele, C, Patel, M, Boydell, J, Leese, M, Wessely, S, Murray, R. Physical illness and lifestyle risk factors in people with their first presentation of psychosis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2007; 42: 117–24.
63Simonelli-Muñoz, AJ, Fortea, MI, Salorio, P, Gallego-Gomez, JI, Sánchez-Bautista, S, Balanza, S. Dietary habits of patients with schizophrenia: a self-reported questionnaire survey. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2012; 21: 220–8.
64Stokes, C, Peet, M. Dietary sugar and polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption as predictors of severity of schizophrenia symptoms. Nutr Neurosci 2004; 7: 247–9.
65Strassnig, M, Singh Brar, J, Ganguli, R. Nutritional assessment of patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary study. Schizophr Bull 2003; 29: 393–7.
66Strassnig, M, Singh Brar, J, Ganguli, R. Increased caffeine and nicotine consumption in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2006; 86: 269–75.
67Strassnig, M, Singh Brar, J, Ganguli, R. Dietary fatty acid and antioxidant intake in community-dwelling patients suffering from schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2005; 76: 343–51.
68Sugawara, N, Yasui-Furukori, N, Sato, Y, Saito, M, Furukori, H, Nakagami, T, et al. Dietary patterns are associated with obesity in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 2014; 14: 184.
69Sugawara, N, Yasui-Furukori, N, Yamazaki, M, Shimoda, K, Mori, T, Sugai, T, et al. Attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2016; 12: 427–36.
70Suvisaari, JM, Saarni, SI, Perälä, J, Suvisaari, JV, Härkänen, T, Lönnqvist, J, et al. Metabolic syndrome among persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in a general population survey. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68: 1045–55.
71Treuer, T, Hoffman, VP, Chen, AK, Irimia, V, Ocampo, M, Wang, G, et al. Factors associated with weight gain during olanzapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: results from a six-month prospective, multinational, observational study. World J Biol Psychiatry 2009; 10: 729–40.
72Tsuruga, K, Sugawara, N, Sato, Y, Saito, M, Furukori, H, Nakagami, T, et al. Dietary patterns and schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy controls. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015; 11: 1115–20.
73Wallace, B, Tennant, C. Nutrition and obesity in the chronic mentally ill. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1998; 32: 82–5.
74Williamson, K, Kilner, K, Clibbens, N. A comparison of the nutrient intake of a community-dwelling first-episode psychosis cohort, aged 19-64 years, with data from the UK population. J Nutr Sci 2015; 4: e28.
75Winstead, DK. Coffee consumption among psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 1976; 133: 1447–50.
76Noguchi, R, Hiraoka, M, Watanabe, Y, Kagawa, Y. Relationship between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms: difference by gender, and unipolar and bipolar depression. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2013; 59: 115–22.
77Archie, SM, Goldberg, JO, Akhtar-Danesh, N, Landeen, J, McColl, L, McNiven, J. Psychotic disorders, eating habits, and physical activity: who is ready for lifestyle changes? Psychiatr Serv 2007; 58: 233–9.
78Duffey, KJ, Popkin, BM. Energy density, portion size, and eating occasions: contributions to increased energy intake in the United States, 1977–2006. PLoS Med 2011; 8: e1001050.
79Appel, LJ, Frohlich, ED, Hall, JE, Pearson, TA, Sacco, RL, Seals, DR, et al. The importance of population-wide sodium reduction as a means to prevent cardiovascular disease and stroke: a call to action from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2011; 123: 1138–43.
80Vancampfort, D, Firth, J, Schuch, FB, Rosenbaum, S, Mugisha, J, Hallgren, M, et al. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry 2017; 16: 308–15.
81Vancampfort, D, Rosenbaum, S, Schuch, FB, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness in severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 2017; 47: 343–52.
82Hall, KD, Heymsfield, SB, Kemnitz, JW, Klein, S, Schoeller, DA, Speakman, JR. Energy balance and its components: implications for body weight regulation. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95: 989–94.
83Werneke, U, Taylor, D, Sanders, TAB. Behavioral interventions for antipsychotic induced appetite changes. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2013; 15: 347.
84Lett, TA, Wallace, TJ, Chowdhury, NI, Tiwari, AK, Kennedy, JL, Müller, DJ. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: review and clinical implications. Mol Psychiatry 2012; 17: 242–66.
85Reynolds, GP, Kirk, SL. Metabolic side effects of antipsychotic drug treatment–pharmacological mechanisms. Pharmacol Ther 2010; 125: 169–79.
86Mitchell, AJ, Vancampfort, D, Sweers, K, van Winkel, R, Yu, K, De Hert, M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia and related disorders—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 2011; 39: 306–18.
87Firth, J, Carney, R, Stubbs, B, Teasdale, SB, Vancampfort, D, Ward, PB, et al. Nutritional deficiencies and clinical correlates in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 2018; 44: 1275–92.
88Burrows, TL, Williams, R, Rollo, M, Wood, L, Garg, ML, Jensen, M, et al. Plasma carotenoid levels as biomarkers of dietary carotenoid consumption: a systematic review of the validation studies. J Nutr Intermed Metab, 2015; 2: 15–64.
89Hill, RJ, Davies, PSW. The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique. Br J Nutr 2001; 85: 415–30.
90Lally, J, Ajnakina, O, Stubbs, B, Cullinane, M, Murphy, KC, Gaughran, F, et al. Remission and recovery from first-episode psychosis in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of long-term outcome studies. Br J Psychiatry, 2017; 211: 350–8.
91Fountaine, RJ, Taylor, AE, Mancuso, JP, Greenway, FL, Byerley, LO, Smith, SR, et al. Increased food intake and energy expenditure following administration of olanzapine to healthy men. Obesity 2010; 18: 1646–51.
92Teasdale, SB, Ward, PB, Rosenbaum, S, Samaras, K, Stubbs, B. Solving a weighty problem: systematic review and meta-analysis of nutrition interventions in severe mental illness. Br J Psychiatry 2017; 210: 110–8.
93Quirk, SE, Williams, LJ, O'Neil, A, Pasco, JA, Jacka, FN, Housden, S, et al. The association between diet quality, dietary patterns and depression in adults: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 2013; 13: 175.
94Jacka, FN, O'Neil, A, Opie, R, Itsiopoulos, C, Cotton, S, Mohebbi, M, et al. A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES'trial). BMC Med 2017; 15: 23.
95Opie, RS, O'Neil, A, Jacka, FN, Pizzinga, J, Itsiopoulos, C. A modified Mediterranean dietary intervention for adults with major depression: dietary protocol and feasibility data from the SMILES trial. Nutr Neurosci 2018; 21: 487–501.
96Cherbuin, N, Sachdev, P, Anstey, KJ. Higher normal fasting plasma glucose is associated with hippocampal atrophy The PATH Study. Neurology 2012; 79: 1019–26.
97Jacka, FN, Cherbuin, N, Anstey, KJ, Sachdev, P, Butterworth, P. Western diet is associated with a smaller hippocampus: a longitudinal investigation. BMC Med 2015; 13: 215.
98Psaltopoulou, T, Sergentanis, TN, Panagiotakos, DB, Sergentanis, IN, Kosti, R, Scarmeas, N. Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment, and depression: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol 2013; 74: 580–91.
99Shim, JS, Oh, K, Kim, HC. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies. Epidemiol Health 2014; 36: e2014009.
100Lachat, C, Hawwash, D, Ockè, MC, Berg, C, Forsum, E, Hörnell, A, et al. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology–nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut): an extension of the STROBE statement. Nutr Bull 2016; 41: 240–51.