Altman, D. & Machin, D. (2000) Statistics with Confidence: Confidence Intervals and Statistical Guidelines (2nd edn). London: BMJ Books.
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn) . Washington, DC: APA.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) . Washington, DC: APA.
Andreasen, N. C. (1979a) Thought, language, and communication disorders. I. Clinical assessment, definition of terms, and evaluation of their reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 1315–1321.
Andreasen, N. C. (1979b) Thought, language, and communication disorders. II. Diagnostic significance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 325–330.
Andreasen, N. C. & Grove, W. M. (1986) Thought, language, and communication in schizophrenia: diagnosis and prognosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 12, 348–359.
Andreasen, N. C. & Olsen, S. (1982) Negative vs positive schizophrenia: definition and validation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 789–794.
Bleuler, E. (1911) Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias.
(trans. and ed. Zinkin, J.). New York: International University Press.
Carpenter, W. T. Jr., McGuffin, P., Mellor, C. S., et al (1996) Commentaries on ‘first-rank symptoms or rank-and-file symptoms’?
British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 541–550
Chen, E. Y. H., Lam, L. C. W., Kan, C. S., et al (1996) Language disorganisation in schizophrenia: validation and assessment with a new clinical rating instrument. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, 6, 4–13.
Crow, T. J. (1980) Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process?
BMJ, 280, 66–68.
Crow, T. J. (1995) Constraints on concepts of pathogenesis: language and the speciation process as the key to the etiology of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1011–1014.
Crow, T. J. (1997) Is schizophrenia the price that Homo sapiens pays for language?
Schizophrenia Research, 28, 127–141.
Crow, T. J. (1998) Nuclear schizophrenic symptoms as a window on the relationship between thought and speech. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 303–309.
Crow, T. J. (2000) Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: a resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Research Reviews, 31, 118–129.
DeLisi, L. E. (2001) Speech disorder in schizophrenia: review of the literature and exploration of its relation to the uniquely human capacity for language. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 481–496.
Liddle, P. F. (1987) The symptoms of schizophrenia: a re-examination of the positive–negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 145–151.
Mellor, C. S. (1970) First rank symptoms of schizophrenia. I. The frequency in schizophrenics on admission to hospital. II. Differences between individual first rank symptoms. British Journal Psychiatry, 117, 15–23.
Peralta, V. & Cuesta, M. J. (1999) Diagnostic significance of Schneider's first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia. Comparative study between schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic psychotic disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 243–248.
Schneider, K. (1957) Primary and secondary symptoms in schizophrenia. English translation (1974) in Themes and Variations in European Psychiatry. An Anthology (eds Hirsch, S. R. & Shepherd, M.), pp. 40–44. Bristol: John Wright.
Sims, A. (1995) Symptoms in the Mind – An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology (2nd edn). London: Saunders.
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974) Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms: An Instruction Manual for the PSE and Catego Program.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
World Health Organization (1992) Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
. Geneva: WHO.