Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Early responding to traumatic events

  • Jonathan I. Bisson (a1)
Summary

How to respond optimally following traumatic events remains a Holy Grail. A number of early interventions lack evidence of effect. Practical, pragmatic support provided in an empathic manner is likely to be an appropriate initial response and complement the high levels of resilience shown by individuals exposed to traumatic events.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Early responding to traumatic events
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Early responding to traumatic events
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Early responding to traumatic events
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
1 Dyb, G, Jensen, TK, Nygaard, E, Ekeberg, Ø, Diseth, TH, Wenzel-Larsen, T, et al. Post-traumatic stress reactions in survivors of the 2011 massacre on Ut⊘ya Island, Norway. Br J Psychiatry 2014; 204: 361–7.
2 Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, Jin, R, Merikangas, KR, Walters, EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSMIV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 617–27.
3 Brewin, CR, Andrews, B, Valentine, JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000; 68: 748–66.
4 Rose, S, Bisson, J, Churchill, R, Wessely, S. Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD000560.
5 National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Management of PTSD in Adults and Children in Primary and Secondary Care. Gaskell, 2005.
6 Roberts, N, Kitchiner, N, Kenardy, J, Bisson, JI. Systematic review and meta-analysis of multiple session early interventions for traumatic events. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166: 293301.
7 Bisson, JI, Tavakoly, B, Witteveen, AB, Ajdukovic, D, Jehel, L, Johansen, VJ, et al. TENTS guidelines: development of post-disaster psychosocial care guidelines through a Delphi process. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 6974.
8 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). Psychosocial Care for People Affected by Disasters and Major Incidents: A Model for Designing, Delivering and Managing Psychosocial Services for People involved in Major Incidents, Conflict, Disasters and Terrorism. Annex 1 to EAPC(JMC)N(2008)0038. NATO, 2009.
9 Hobfoll, SE, Watson, P, Bell, CC, Bryant, RA, Brymer, MJ, Friedman, MJ, et al. Five essential elements of immediate and mid–term mass trauma intervention: empirical evidence. Psychiatry 2007; 70: 283315.
10 Department of Health. Planning for the Psychosocial and Mental Health Care of People Affected by Major Incidents and Disasters: Interim National Strategic Guidance. Department of Health, 2009.
11 Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC). IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Input Support in Emergency Situations. IASC, 2007.
12 Bisson, JI, Lewis, C. Systematic Review of Psychological First Aid. World Health Organization, 2009.
13 Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health. Development of Guidelines on Peer Support using the Delphi Methodology. ACPMH, 2011 (http://www.acpmh.unimelb.edu.au/).
14 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (4th edn) (DSM-IV). APA, 1994.
15 Jonas, DE, Cusack, K, Forneris, CA, Wilkins, TM, Sonis, J, Middleton, JL, et al. Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Comparative Effectiveness Review 92. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2013.
16 Norris, FH, Tracy, M, Galea, S. Looking for resilience: understanding the longitudinal trajectories of responses to stress. Soc Sci Med 2009; 68: 2190–8.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Early responding to traumatic events

  • Jonathan I. Bisson (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *