Mäkinen, J, Miettunen, J, Isohanni, M, Koponen, H. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a review. Nord J Psychiatry
2008; 62: 334–41.
Kar, N, Jagdisha, Murali N. Efficacy of somatic treatment in treatment resistant schizophrenia. Psychiatry Online
González-Maeso, J, Sealfon, SC. Psychedelics and schizophrenia. Trends Neurosci
2009; 32: 225–32.
Mulholland, C, Lynch, G, King, DJ, Cooper, SJ. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline for depressive symptoms in patients with stable, chronic schizophrenia. J Psychopharmacol
2003; 17: 107–12.
Salokangas, RK, Saarijärvi, S, Taiminen, T, Kallioniemi, H, Lehto, H, Niemi, H, et al. Citalopram as an adjuvant in chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Acta Psychiatr Scand
1996; 94: 175–80.
Lee, MS, Kim, YK, Lee, SK, Suh, KY. A double-blind study of adjunctive sertraline in haloperidol-stabilized patients with chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol
1998; 18: 399–403.
Poyurovsky, M, Pashinian, A, Gil-Ad, I, Maayan, R, Schneidman, M, Fuchs, C, et al. Olanzapine-induced weight gain in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine addition. Am J Psychiatry
2002; 159: 1058–60.
Bustillo, JR, Lauriello, J, Parker, K, Hammond, R, Rowland, L, Bogenschutz, M, et al. Treatment of weight gain with fluoxetine in olanzapine-treated schizophrenic outpatients. Neuropsychopharmacology
2003; 28: 527–9.
Friedman, JI, Ocampo, R, Elbaz, Z, Parrella, M, White, L, Bowler, S, et al. The effect of citalopram adjunctive treatment added to atypical antipsychotic medications for cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol
2005; 25: 237–42.
Lehmann, HE, Ban, TA. A placebo-controlled clinical study with trazodone in schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacol Bull
1977; 13: 11–2.
Berk, M, Ichim, C, Brook, S. Efficacy of mirtazapine add on therapy to haloperidol in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2001; 16: 87–92.
Berk, M, Gama, CS, Sundram, S, Hustig, H, Koopowitz, L, D'Souza, R, et al. Mirtazapine add-on therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia with atypical antipsychotics: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Hum Psychopharmacol
2009; 24: 233–8.
Waehrens, J, Gerlach, J. Antidepressant drugs in anergic schizophrenia. A double-blind cross-over study with maprotiline and placebo. Acta Psychiatr Scand
1980; 61: 438–44.
Vartiainen, H, Tiihonen, J, Putkonen, A, Koponen, H, Virkkunen, M, Hakola, P, et al. Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the treatment of aggression in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand
1995; 91: 348–51.
Wynchank, D, Berk, M. Efficacy of nefazodone in the treatment of neuroleptic induced extrapyramidal side effects: a double-blind randomised parallel group placebo-controlled trial. Hum Psychopharmacol
2003; 18: 271–5.
Silver, H, Nassar, A. Fluvoxamine improves negative symptoms in treated chronic schizophrenia: an add-on double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Biol Psychiatry
1992; 31: 698–704.
Duinkerke, SJ, Botter, PA, Jansen, AAI, van Dongen, PAM, van Haaften, AJ, Boom, AJ, et al. Ritanserin, a selective 5-HT2/1C antagonist, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Br J Psychiatry
1993; 163: 451–5.
Decina, P, Mukherjee, S, Bocola, V, Saraceni, F, Hadjichristos, C, Scapicchio, P. Adjunctive trazodone in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Hosp Community Psychiatry
1994; 45: 1220–3.
Spina, E, De Domenico, P, Ruello, C, Longobardo, N, Gitto, C, Ancione, M, et al. Adjunctive fluoxetine in the treatment of negative symptoms in chronic schizophrenic patients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
1994; 9: 281–5.
Goff, DC, Midha, KK, Sarid-Segal, O, Hubbard, JW, Amico, E. A placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine added to neuroleptic in patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl)
1995; 117: 417–23.
Buchanan, RW, Kirkpatrick, B, Bryant, N, Ball, P, Breier, A. Fluoxetine augmentation of clozapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry
1996; 153: 1625–7.
Hayashi, T, Yokota, N, Takahashi, T, Tawara, Y, Nishikawa, T, Yano, T, et al. Benefits of trazodone and mianserin for patients with late-life chronic schizophrenia and tardive dyskinesia: an add-on, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
1997; 12: 199–205.
Arango, C, Kirkpatrick, B, Buchanan, RW. Fluoxetine as an adjunct to conventional antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia patients with residual symptoms. J Nerv Ment Dis
2000; 188: 50–3.
Silver, H, Barash, I, Aharon, N, Kaplan, A, Poyurovsky, M. Fluvoxamine augmentation of antipsychotics improves negative symptoms in psychotic chronic schizophrenic patients: a placebo-controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2000; 15: 257–61.
Schutz, G, Berk, M. Reboxetine add on therapy to haloperidol in the treatment of schizophrenia: a preliminary double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2001; 16: 275–8.
Shiloh, R, Zemishlany, Z, Aizenberg, D, Valevski, A, Bodinger, L, Munitz, H, et al. Mianserin or placebo as adjuncts to typical antipsychotics in resistant schizophrenia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2002; 17: 59–64.
Poyurovsky, M, Isaacs, I, Fuchs, C, Schneidman, M, Faragian, S, Weizman, R, et al. Attenuation of olanzapine-induced weight gain with reboxetine in patients with schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry
2003; 160: 297–302.
Poyurovsky, M, Koren, D, Gonopolsky, I, Schneidman, M, Fuchs, C, Weizman, A, et al. Effect of the 5-HT2 antagonist mianserin on cognitive dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia patients: an add-on, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
2003; 13: 123–8.
Zoccali, R, Muscatello, MR, Cedro, C, Neri, P, La Torre, D, Spina, E, et al. The effect of mirtazapine augmentation of clozapine in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2004; 19: 71–6.
Jockers-Scherübl, MC, Bauer, A, Godemann, F, Reischies, FM, Selig, F, Schlattmann, P. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are improved by the addition of paroxetine to neuroleptics: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2005; 20: 27–31.
Poyurovsky, M, Fuchs, C, Pashinian, A, Levi, A, Faragian, S, Maayan, R, et al. Attenuating effect of reboxetine on appetite and weight gain in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Psychopharmacology (Berl)
2007; 192: 441–8.
Akhondzadeh, S, Malek-Hosseini, M, Ghoreishi, A, Raznahan, M, Rezazadeh, S. Effect of ritanserin, a 5HT2A/2C antagonist, on negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
2008; 32: 1879–83.
Joffe, G, Terevnikov, V, Joffe, M, Stenberg, J, Burkin, M, Tiihonen, J. Add-on mirtazapine enhances antipsychotic effect of first generation antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Schizophr Res
2009; 108: 245–51.
World Health Organization. ATC/DDD Index. WHO Collaborating Centre of Drug Statistics Methodology. WHO, 2009.
Winkley, K, Ismail, K, Landau, S, Eisler, I. Psychological interventions to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ
2006; 333: e65.
Schünemann, HJ, Oxman, AD, Vist, GE, Higgins, JP, Deeks, JJ, Glasziou, P, et al. Interpreting results and drawing conclusions. In Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Wiley Cochrane Series): 359–84. John Wiley and Sons, 2008.
Rummel, C, Kissling, W, Leucht, S. Antidepressants as add-on treatment to antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms: a systematic review of randomized trials. Schizophr Res
2005; 80: 85–97.
Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd edn). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988.
Kirsch, I, Deacon, BJ, Huedo-Medina, TB, Scoboria, A, Moore, TJ, Johnson, BT. Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Med
2008; 5: e45.
Salaffi, F, Stancati, A, Alberto Silvestri, C, Ciapetti, A, Grassi, W. Minimal clinically important changes in chronic musculoskeletal pain intensity measured on a numerical rating scale. Euro J Pain
2004; 8: 283–91.
Rummel, C, Kissling, W, Leucht, S. Antidepressants for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2006; 3: CD005581.
Sepehry, AA, Potvin, S, Elie, R, Stip, E. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) add-on therapy for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry
2007; 68: 604–10.
Ruiu, S, Marchese, G, Saba, PL, Gessa, GL, Pani, L. The 5-HT2 antagonist ritanserin blocks dopamine re-uptake in the rat frontal cortex. Mol Psychiatry
2000; 5: 673–7.
Arroll, B, Macgillivray, S, Ogston, S, Reid, I, Sullivan, F, Williams, B, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs compared with placebo for treatment of depression in primary care: a meta-analysis. Ann Fam Med
2005; 3: 449–56.
Guaiana, G, Barbui, C, Hotopf, M. Amitriptyline versus other types of pharmacotherapy for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev