McDermott, Lisa Cornelius, Victoria Wright, Alison J Burgess, Caroline Forster, Alice S Ashworth, Mark Khoshaba, Bernadette Clery, Philippa Fuller, Frances Miller, Jane Dodhia, Hiten Rudisill, Caroline Conner, Mark T and Gulliford, Martin C 2018. Enhanced Invitations Using the Question-Behavior Effect and Financial Incentives to Promote Health Check Uptake in Primary Care. Annals of Behavioral Medicine,
Peugh, James L. Strotman, Daniel McGrady, Meghan Rausch, Joseph and Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita 2017. Beyond intent to treat (ITT): A complier average causal effect (CACE) estimation primer. Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 60, p. 7.
Dodd, Susanna White, Ian R. and Williamson, Paula 2017. A framework for the design, conduct and interpretation of randomised controlled trials in the presence of treatment changes. Trials, Vol. 18, Issue. 1,
Ginestet, Cedric E. Emsley, Richard and Landau, Sabine 2017. Dose-response modeling in mental health using stein-like estimators with instrumental variables. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 36, Issue. 11, p. 1696.
Fairhall, Nicola Sherrington, Catherine Cameron, Ian D Kurrle, Susan E Lord, Stephen R Lockwood, Keri and Herbert, Robert D 2017. A multifactorial intervention for frail older people is more than twice as effective among those who are compliant: complier average causal effect analysis of a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy, Vol. 63, Issue. 1, p. 40.
Gates, Simon Lall, Ranjit Quinn, Tom Deakin, Charles D Cooke, Matthew W Horton, Jessica Lamb, Sarah E Slowther, Anne-Marie Woollard, Malcolm Carson, Andy Smyth, Mike Wilson, Kate Parcell, Garry Rosser, Andrew Whitfield, Richard Williams, Amanda Jones, Rebecca Pocock, Helen Brock, Nicola Black, John JM Wright, John Han, Kyee Shaw, Gary Blair, Laura Marti, Joachim Hulme, Claire McCabe, Christopher Nikolova, Silviya Ferreira, Zenia and Perkins, Gavin D 2017. Prehospital randomised assessment of a mechanical compression device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment, Vol. 21, Issue. 11, p. 1.
Robinson, Emily J. Goldstein, Laura H. McCrone, Paul Perdue, Iain Chalder, Trudie Mellers, John D. C. Richardson, Mark P. Murray, Joanna Reuber, Markus Medford, Nick Stone, Jon Carson, Alan and Landau, Sabine 2017. COgnitive behavioural therapy versus standardised medical care for adults with Dissociative non-Epileptic Seizures (CODES): statistical and economic analysis plan for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, Vol. 18, Issue. 1,
Schmidt, Ulrike Sharpe, Helen Bartholdy, Savani Bonin, Eva-Maria Davies, Helen Easter, Abigail Goddard, Elizabeth Hibbs, Rebecca House, Jennifer Keyes, Alexandra Knightsmith, Pooky Koskina, Antonia Magill, Nicholas McClelland, Jessica Micali, Nadia Raenker, Simone Renwick, Bethany Rhind, Charlotte Simic, Mima Sternheim, Lot Woerwag-Mehta, Sabine Beecham, Jennifer Campbell, Iain C Eisler, Ivan Landau, Sabine Ringwood, Susan Startup, Helen Tchanturia, Kate and Treasure, Janet 2017. Treatment of anorexia nervosa: a multimethod investigation translating experimental neuroscience into clinical practice. Programme Grants for Applied Research, Vol. 5, Issue. 16, p. 1.
Alfonsson, Sven Olsson, Erik and Hursti, Timo 2016. Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. e52.
Taylor, Stephanie JC Carnes, Dawn Homer, Kate Pincus, Tamar Kahan, Brennan C Hounsome, Natalia Eldridge, Sandra Spencer, Anne Diaz-Ordaz, Karla Rahman, Anisur Mars, Tom S Foell, Jens Griffiths, Chris J and Underwood, Martin R 2016. Improving the self-management of chronic pain: COping with persistent Pain, Effectiveness Research in Self-management (COPERS). Programme Grants for Applied Research, Vol. 4, Issue. 14, p. 1.
Morrison, Anthony P Law, Heather Barrowclough, Christine Bentall, Richard P Haddock, Gillian Jones, Steven H Kilbride, Martina Pitt, Elizabeth Shryane, Nicholas Tarrier, Nicholas Welford, Mary and Dunn, Graham 2016. Psychological approaches to understanding and promoting recovery in psychosis and bipolar disorder: a mixed-methods approach. Programme Grants for Applied Research, Vol. 4, Issue. 5, p. 1.
McDermott, Lisa Wright, Alison J Cornelius, Victoria Burgess, Caroline Forster, Alice S Ashworth, Mark Khoshaba, Bernadette Clery, Philippa Fuller, Frances Miller, Jane Dodhia, Hiten Rudisill, Caroline Conner, Mark T and Gulliford, Martin C 2016. Enhanced invitation methods and uptake of health checks in primary care: randomised controlled trial and cohort study using electronic health records. Health Technology Assessment, Vol. 20, Issue. 84, p. 1.
Gruenewald, Tara L. Tanner, Elizabeth K. Fried, Linda P. Carlson, Michelle C. Xue, Qian-Li Parisi, Jeanine M. Rebok, George W. Yarnell, Lisa M. and Seeman, Teresa E. 2016. The Baltimore Experience Corps Trial: Enhancing Generativity via Intergenerational Activity Engagement in Later Life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 71, Issue. 4, p. 661.
Chen, Y Zhang, Q Wang, Y Xiao, Y Fu, R Bao, H and Liu, M 2015. Estimating the causal effect of milk powder supplementation on bone mineral density: a randomized controlled trial with both non-compliance and loss to follow-up. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 69, Issue. 7, p. 824.
Dunn, Graham Emsley, Richard Liu, Hanhua Landau, Sabine Green, Jonathan White, Ian and Pickles, Andrew 2015. Evaluation and validation of social and psychological markers in randomised trials of complex interventions in mental health: a methodological research programme. Health Technology Assessment, Vol. 19, Issue. 93, p. 1.
Gates, Simon Quinn, Tom Deakin, Charles D. Blair, Laura Couper, Keith and Perkins, Gavin D. 2015. Mechanical chest compression for out of hospital cardiac arrest: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation, Vol. 94, p. 91.
Gillespie, D. Hood, K. Farewell, D. Butler, C. C. Verheij, T. Goossens, H. Stuart, B. Mullee, M. and Little, P. 2015. Adherence-adjusted estimates of benefits and harms from treatment with amoxicillin for LRTI: secondary analysis of a 12-country randomised placebo-controlled trial using randomisation-based efficacy estimators. BMJ Open, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. e006160.
Perkins, Gavin D Lall, Ranjit Quinn, Tom Deakin, Charles D Cooke, Matthew W Horton, Jessica Lamb, Sarah E Slowther, Anne-Marie Woollard, Malcolm Carson, Andy Smyth, Mike Whitfield, Richard Williams, Amanda Pocock, Helen Black, John J M Wright, John Han, Kyee and Gates, Simon 2015. Mechanical versus manual chest compression for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, Vol. 385, Issue. 9972, p. 947.
Liang, Yuanyuan Ehler, Benjamin R. Hollenbeak, Christopher S. and Turner, Barbara J. 2015. Behavioral Support Intervention for Uncontrolled Hypertension. Medical Care, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. e9.
Lisiecka, Danuta M Suckling, John Barnes, Thomas RE Chaudhry, Imran B Dazzan, Paola Husain, Nusrat Jones, Peter B Joyce, Eileen M Lawrie, Stephen M Upthegrove, Rachel and Deakin, Bill 2015. The benefit of minocycline on negative symptoms in early-phase psychosis in addition to standard care - extent and mechanism (BeneMin): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,
The Outcomes of Depression International Network (ODIN) trial evaluated the effect of two psychological interventions for the treatment of depression in primary care. Only about half of the patients in the treatment arm complied with the offer of treatment, prompting the question: ‘what was the effect of treatment in those patients who actually received it?’
To illustrate the estimation of the effect of receipt of treatment in a randomised controlled trial subject to non-compliance and loss to follow-up.
We estimated the complier average causal effect (CACE) of treatment.
In the ODIN trial the effect of receipt of psychological intervention (an average of about 4 points on the Beck Depression Inventory) is about twice that of offering it.
The statistical analysis of the results of a clinical trial subject to noncompliance to allocated treatment is now reasonably straightforward through estimation of a CACE and investigators should be encouraged to present the results of analyses of this type as a routine component of a trial report.
Declaration of interest
None. Funding detailed in Acknowledgements. Paper accepted when GW was Editor of the Journal.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
Full text views reflects the number of PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.
* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 3rd January 2018 - 20th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.