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Fear reduction by psychotherapies: Recent findings, future directions

  • Isaac Marks (a1) and Reuven Dar (a2)
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Abstract

Copyright

Corresponding author

Professor I. Marks, Institute of Psychiatry, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF. Fax: 020 7848 0659; e-mail: I.Marks@iop.kcl.ac.uk

Footnotes

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See invited commentary pp. 512–513, this issue.

Footnotes

References

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Alexander, J. M. (1928) Thought Control in Everyday Life. New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
Barlow, D. H. (1988) Anxiety and its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic. New York: Guilford.
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Basoglu, M., Marks, I. M., Kilic, C., et al (1994) Alprazolam and exposure for panic disorder with agoraphobia. Attribution of improvement to medication predicts subsequent relapse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 652659.
Basoglu, M., Mineka, S., Paker, M., et al (1997) Psychological preparedness for trauma as a protective factor in survivors of torture. Psychological Medicine, 27, 14211433.
Bouman, T. & Visser, S. (1998) Cognitive and behavioural treatment of hypochondriasis. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 67, 214221.
Bowman, D., Scogin, F., Floyd, M., et al (1997) Efficacy of self-examination therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 267273.
Crowe, M. J., Marks, I. M., Agras, W. S., et al (1972) Time-limited desensitization, implosion and shaping for phobic patients: crossover study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10, 319328.
De Silva, P. & Rachman, S. (1981) Is exposure a necessary condition for fear-reduction? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 227232.
Hecker, J. E., Fink, C. M., Vogeltanz, N. D., et al (1998) Cognitive restructuring and interoceptive exposure in the treatment of panic disorder: A crossover study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26, 115131.
Hoffart, A. (1995) Comparison of cognitive and guided mastery therapy of agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 423434.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1996) Full Catastrophe Living: How to Cope with Stress, Pain and Illness Using Mindfulness Meditation. London: Piatkus.
Basoglu, M., Wheeler, E., Light, T., et al (1998) Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA). Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 625632.
Liebowitz, M. (1998) Anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuropsychobiology, 37, 6971.
Livanou, M. (1998) What improves when in PTSD treated by exposure and cognitive therapy? PhD dissertation, University of London.
Marks, I. M. (1973) The reduction of fear: Towards a unifying theory. Journal of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, 18, 912.
Marks, I. M. (1987) Fears, Phobias and Rituals: Panic, Anxiety, and their Disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Marks, I. M., Viswanathan, R., Lipsedge, M. S., et al (1972) Enhanced relief of phobias by flooding during waning diazepam effect. British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 493505.
Marks, I. M., Swinson, R. P., Basoglu, M., et al (1993) Alprazolam and exposure alone and combined in panic disorder with agoraphobia. A controlled study in London and Toronto. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 776787.
Marks, I. M., & Mataix-Cols, D. (1997) Four-year remission of transsexualism after obsessive–compulsive disorder improved with self-exposure therapy. Case report. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 389390.
Marks, I. M., Lovell, K., Noshirvani, H., et al (1998) Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 317325.
Meichenbaum, D. (1977) Cognitive–Behavior Modification. New York: Plenum.
Rachman, S., Craske, M., Tallman, K., et al (1986) Does escape behavior strengthen agoraphobic avoidance? A replication. Behavior Therapy, 17, 366384.
Ost, I., Fellenius, J. & Sterner, U. (1991) Applied tension, exposure in vivo, and tension-only in the treatment of blood phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 561574.
Ramm, E., Marks, I. M., Yuksel, S., et al (1981) Anxiety management training for anxiety states: positive compared with negative self-statements. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 367373.
Tarrier, N., Pilgrim, H., Sommerfield, C., et al (1999) A randomized trial of cognitive therapy and imaginal exposure in the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 1318.
Van Oppen, P., De Haan, F., Van Balkom, A. J. L. M., et al (1995) Cognitive therapy and exposure in vivo in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 379390.
Watson, J. P. & Marks, I. M. (1971) Relevant and irrelevant fear in flooding? A crossover study of phobic patients. Behavior Therapy, 2, 275293.
Williams, S. L. & Falbo, J. (1996) Cognitive and performance-based treatments for panic attacks in people with varying degrees of agoraphobic disability. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 253264.
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The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
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Fear reduction by psychotherapies: Recent findings, future directions

  • Isaac Marks (a1) and Reuven Dar (a2)
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