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Frontal Lobotomy in Early Schizophrenia Long Follow-up in 415 Cases

  • Walter Freeman (a1)

This is a report on 415 private patients who have been followed from four up to more than thirty years or until death. The operations were carried out before the end of twelve months of psychiatric hospitalization, not necessarily continuous. Many of the patients were operated upon more than once, especially in the earlier years before the importance of the orbitomedial quadrants of the brain was recognized.

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1. Burckhardt, G. (1890–91). Ueber Rindenexcisionen als Beitrag zur operativen Therapie der Psychosen. Allg. Ztschr. f. Psychiat., 47, 463548.
2. Fiamberti, A. M. (1937). Proposta di una tecnica operatoria modificata e scmplificata per gli interventi alla Moniz sui lobi frontali in malati di mente. Ross. Studi Psichiat., 26(2): 797.
3. Freeman, W. (1949). ‘Transorbital lobotomy: the deep frontal cut.’ Proc. Roy, Soc, Med., 42 Suppl. 812.
4. Freeman, W. and Watts, J. W. (1942; 2nd ed. 1950). Psychosurgery. Springfield, Ill., C. C. Thomas.
5. Freeman, W. and Williams, J. M. (1952). ‘Human sonar: The amygdaloid nucleus in relation to auditory hallucinations.’ J. nerv. and ment. Dis., 116, 456–62.
6. Moniz, E. (1936). Tentatives opératoires dans le traitement de certaines psychoses. Paris, Masson.
7. Robinson, M. F., and Freeman, W. (1954). Psychosurgery and the Self. New York, Grune and Stratton.
8. Williams, J. M., and Freeman, W. (1953). ‘Evaluation of Lobotomy with Special Reference to Children.’ Res. Publ. Ass, Research in nerv. and ment, Dis., 31, 311.
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The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
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Frontal Lobotomy in Early Schizophrenia Long Follow-up in 415 Cases

  • Walter Freeman (a1)
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