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Gambling problems in bipolar disorder in the UK: Prevalence and distribution

  • Lisa Jones (a1), Alice Metcalf (a2), Katherine Gordon-Smith (a3), Liz Forty (a3), Amy Perry (a1), Joanne Lloyd (a4), John R. Geddes (a5), Guy M. Goodwin (a5), Ian Jones (a3), Nick Craddock (a3) and Robert D. Rogers (a6)...
Abstract
Background

North American studies show bipolar disorder is associated with elevated rates of problem gambling; however, little is known about rates in the different presentations of bipolar illness.

Aims

To determine the prevalence and distribution of problem gambling in people with bipolar disorder in the UK.

Method

The Problem Gambling Severity Index was used to measure gambling problems in 635 participants with bipolar disorder.

Results

Moderate to severe gambling problems were four times higher in people with bipolar disorder than in the general population, and were associated with type 2 disorder (OR = 1.74, P = 0.036), history of suicidal ideation or attempt (OR = 3.44, P = 0.02) and rapid cycling (OR = 2.63, P = 0.008).

Conclusions

Approximately 1 in 10 patients with bipolar disorder may be at moderate to severe risk of problem gambling, possibly associated with suicidal behaviour and a rapid cycling course. Elevated rates of gambling problems in type 2 disorder highlight the probable significance of modest but unstable mood disturbance in the development and maintenance of such problems.

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Copyright
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence.
Corresponding author
Professor Robert D. Rogers, School of Psychology, Brigantia Building, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2AS. Email: r.rogers@bangor.ac.uk
Footnotes
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Declaration of interest

R.D.R. provides paid consultancy services for Pfizer. G.M.G. holds or has held grants from Bailly Thomas (charity), Medical Research Council, NIHR, and Servier, has received honoraria from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly & Co, GlaxoSmithKline, Lundbeck, Otsuka and Servier, holds shares in P1vital, has served on advisory boards for Cephalon, Lundbeck, Merck, Otsuka, Servier and Takeda, and acted as an expert witness for Eli Lilly & Co. G.M.G. and J.R.G. are NIHR Senior Investigators.

Footnotes
References
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Gambling problems in bipolar disorder in the UK: Prevalence and distribution

  • Lisa Jones (a1), Alice Metcalf (a2), Katherine Gordon-Smith (a3), Liz Forty (a3), Amy Perry (a1), Joanne Lloyd (a4), John R. Geddes (a5), Guy M. Goodwin (a5), Ian Jones (a3), Nick Craddock (a3) and Robert D. Rogers (a6)...
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