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Gene–environment interplay in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of a developmental perspective

  • Anita Thapar (a1), Kate Langley (a1), Philip Asherson (a2) and Michael Gill (a3)
Summary

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies in its clinical presentation and course. Susceptibility gene variants for ADHD and associated antisocial behaviour are being identified with emerging evidence of gene–environment interaction. Genes and environmental factors that influence the origins of disorder are not necessarily the same as those that contribute to its course and outcome.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Professor Anita Thapar, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Section, Department of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. Email: thapar@cf.ac.uk
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Declaration of interest

None.

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References
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The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
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Gene–environment interplay in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of a developmental perspective

  • Anita Thapar (a1), Kate Langley (a1), Philip Asherson (a2) and Michael Gill (a3)
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