Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Harmonisation of ICD–11 and DSM–V: opportunities and challenges

  • Michael B. First (a1)
Abstract
Background

Differences in the ICD–10 and DSM–IV definitions for the same disorder impede international communication and research efforts. The forthcoming parallel development of DSM–V and ICD–11 offers an opportunity to harmonise the two classifications.

Aims

This paper aims to facilitate the harmonisation process by identifying diagnostic differences between the two systems.

Method

DSM–IV–TR criteria sets and the ICD–10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research were compared and categorised into those with identical definitions, those with conceptually based differences and those in which differences are not conceptually based and appear to be unintentional.

Results

Of the 176 criteria sets in both systems, only one, transient tic disorder, is identical. Twenty-one per cent had conceptually based differences and 78% had non-conceptually based differences.

Conclusions

Harmonisation of criteria sets, especially those with non-conceptually based differences, should be prioritised in the DSM–V and ICD–11 development process. Prior experience with the DSM–IV and ICD–10 harmonisation effort suggests that for the process to be successful steps should be taken as early as possible.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Harmonisation of ICD–11 and DSM–V: opportunities and challenges
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Harmonisation of ICD–11 and DSM–V: opportunities and challenges
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Harmonisation of ICD–11 and DSM–V: opportunities and challenges
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
1 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn, Text Revision) (DSM–IV–TR). APA, 2000.
2 World Health Organization. The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO, 1992.
3 Parker, G. Beyond major depression. Psychol Med 2005; 35: 467–74.
4 Van Praag, H. Nosologomania; a disorder of psychiatry. World J Biol Psychiatry 2000; 1: 151–8.
5 Clark, L, Watson, D, Reynolds, S. Diagnosis and classification of psychopathology: challenges to the current system and future directions. Annu Rev Psychol 1995; 46: 121–53.
6 Hyman, S. Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM–V? Nat Rev Neurosci 2007; 8: 725–32.
7 McHugh, P. Striving for coherence: psychiatry's efforts over classification. JAMA 2005; 293: 2526–8.
8 Andrews, G, Slade, T, Peters, L. Classification in psychiatry: ICD–10 versus DSM–IV. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 174: 35.
9 Pohjasvaara, T, Mantyla, R, Ylikoski, R, Kaste, M, Erkinjuntti, T. Comparison of different clinical criteria (DSM–III, ADDTC, ICD–10, NINDS-AIREN, DSM–IV) for the diagnosis of vascular dementia. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences. Stroke 2000; 31: 2952–7.
10 Wetterling, T, Kanitz, R, Borquis, K. Comparison of different diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (ADDTC, DSM–IV, ICD–10, NINDS-AIREN). Stroke 1996; 27: 30–6.
11 Strydom, A, Livingston, G, King, M, Hassiotis, A. Prevalence of dementia in intellectual disability using different diagnostic criteria. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 191: 150–7.
12 Wancata, J, Borjesson-Hanson, A, Ostling, S, Sjorgren, K, Skoog, I. Diagnostic criteria influence dementia prevalence. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007; 15: 1034–5.
13 Vilalta-Franch, J, Garre-Olmo, J, Lopez-Pousa, S, Turon-Estrada, A, Lozano-Gallego, M, Hernandez-Ferrandiz, M, et al. Comparison of different clinical diagnostic criteria for depression in Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 14: 589–97.
14 Erkinjuntti, T, Ostbye, T, Steenhuis, R, Hachinski, V. The effect of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of dementia. N Eng J Med 1997; 337: 1667–74.
15 Jager, M, Bottlender, R, Strauss, A, Moller, H. Classification of functional psychoses and its implication for prognosis: comparison between ICD–10 and DSM–IV. Psychopathology 2004; 37: 110–7.
16 Pillmann, F, Haring, A, Balzuweit, S, Bloink, R, Marneros, A. The concordance of ICD–10 acute and transient psychosis and DSM–IV brief psychotic disorder. Psychol Med 2002; 32: 525–33.
17 Andrews, G, Slade, T. The classification of anxiety disorders in ICD–10 and DSM–IV: a concordance analysis. Psychopathology 2002; 35: 100–6.
18 Slade, T, Andrews, G. DSM–IV and ICD–10 generalized anxiety disorder: discrepant diagnoses and associated disability. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiol 2001; 36: 4551.
19 Fink, P, Hansen, M, Oxhoj, M. The prevalence of somatoform disorders among internal medical inpatients. J Psychosom Res 2004; 56: 413–8.
20 Lindstrom, E, Widerlov, B, von Knorring, L. The ICD–10 and DSM–IV diagnostic criteria and the prevalence of schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry 1997; 12: 217–23.
21 Turkcapar, M, Akdemir, A, Orsel, S, Demirergi, N, Sirin, A, Kilic, E, et al. The validity of the diagnosis of melancholic depression according to different diagnostic systems. J Affect Disord 1999; 54: 101–7.
22 Stompe, T, Ortwein-Swoboda, G, Ritter, K, Marquart, B, Schanda, H. The impact of diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of schizophrenia subtypes. Compr Psychiatry 2005; 46: 433–9.
23 Grant, B. DSM–IV, DSM–III-R, and ICD–10 alcohol and drug abuse/harmful use and dependence, United States, 1992: a nosological comparison. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996; 20: 1481–8.
24 Starcevic, V, Bogojevic, G. The concept of generalized anxiety disorder: between the too narrow and too wide diagnostic criteria. Psychopathology 1999; 32: 511.
25 Howard, M, Cottler, L, Compton, W, Ben-Abdallah, A. Diagnostic concordance of DSM–III-R, DSM–IV, and ICD–10 inhalant use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001; 61: 223–8.
26 Swift, W, Hall, W, Teesson, M. Characteristics of DSM–IV and ICD–10 cannabis dependence among Australian adults: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001; 63: 147–53.
27 Rounsaville, B, Bryant, K, Babor, T, Kranzler, H, Kadden, R. Cross system agreement for substance use disorders: DSM–III-R, DSM–IV and ICD–10. Addiction 1993; 88: 337–48.
28 Schuckit, M, Hesselbrock, V, Tipp, J, Anthenelli, R, Bucholz, K, Radziminski, S. A comparison of DSM–III-R, DSM–IV and ICD–10 substance use disorders diagnoses in 1922 men and women subjects in the COGA study. Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Addiction 1994; 89: 1629–38.
29 Langenbucher, J, Morgenstern, J, Labouvie, E, Nathan, P. Diagnostic concordance of substance use disorders in DSM–III, DSM–IV and ICD–10. Drug Alcohol Depend 1994; 36: 193203.
30 Hasin, D, McCloud, S, Endicott, J. Agreement between DSM–III, DSM–III-R, DSM–IV and ICD–10 alcohol diagnoses in US community-sample heavy drinkers. Addiction 1997; 91: 1517–27.
31 Armenteros, J, Fennelly, B, Hallin, A, Adarns, P, Pomerantz, P, Michell, M, et al. Schizophrenia in hospitalized adolescents: clinical diagnosis, DSM–III-R, DSM–IV, and ICD–10 criteria. Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31: 383–87.
32 Sorensen, M, Mors, O, Thomsen, P. DSM–IV or ICD–10-DCR diagnoses in child and adolescent psychiatry: does it matter? Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 14: 335–40.
33 Ottosson, H, Ekselius, L, Grann, M, Kullgren, G. Cross-system concordance of personality disorder diagnoses of DSM–IV and diagnostic criteria for research of ICD–10. J Personal Disord 2002; 16: 283–92.
34 Starcevic, V, Bopojevic, G, Kelin, K. Diagnostic agreement between the DSM–IV and ICD–10-DCR personality disorders. Psychopathology 1997; 30: 328–34.
35 Perez Urdaniz, A, Vega Fernandez, F, Martin Navarro, N, Molina Ramos, R, Mosqueira Terron, I, Rubio, L, et al. Diagnostics discrepancies between ICD–10 and DSM–IV in personality disorders. Actas Esp Psuquiatr 2005; 33: 244–53.
36 Kopra, K, von Wendt, L, Nieminen-von Wendt, T, Paavonen, EJ. Comparison of diagnostic methods for asperger syndrome. J Autsim Dev Disord 2008; 38: 1567–73.
37 Lee, S, Schachar, R, Chen, S, Ornstein, Y, Charach, A, Barr, C, et al. Predictive validity of DSM–IV and ICD–10 criteria for ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008; 49: 7080.
38 Lahey, B, Pelham, W, Chronis, A, Massetti, G, Kipp, H, Erhrhardt, A, et al. Predictive validity of ICD–10 hyperkinetic disorder relative to DSM–IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among younger children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006; 47: 472–9.
39 Rowe, R, Maughan, B, Costello, E, Angold, A. Defining oppositional defiant disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2005; 46: 1398–416.
40 McCauley, S, Boake, C, Pedroza, C, Brown, S, Levin, H, Goodman, H, et al. Postconcussional disorder: are the DSM–IV criteria an improvement over the ICD–10? J Nerv Ment Dis 2005; 193: 540–50.
41 Boake, C, McCauley, S, Levin, H, Contant, C, Song, J, Brown, S, et al. Limited agreement between criteria-based diagnoses of postconcussional syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004; 16: 493–9.
42 Laurila, J, Pitkala, K, Strandberg, T, Tilvis, R. Impact of different diagnostic criteria on prognosis of delirium: a prospective study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004; 18: 240–44.
43 Steinberger, K, Schurch, B. Classification of obsessive-compulsive disorder in childhood and adolescence. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002; 106: 97102.
44 Pollock, N, Martin, C, Langenbucher, J. Diagnostic concordance of DSM–III, DSM–III-R, DSM–IV and ICD–10 alcohol diagnoses in adolescents. J Stud Alcohol 2000; 61: 439–46.
45 Yutzy, S, Cloninger, C, Guze, S, Pribor, E, Martin, R, Kathol, R, et al. DSM–IV field trial: testing a new proposal for somatization disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152: 97101.
46 Rounsaville, B, Alarcon, R, Andrews, G, Jackson, J, Kendell, R, Kendler, KS. Basic nomenclature issues for DSM–V. In Research Agenda for DSM–V (eds Kupfer, D, First, M, Regier, D): 130. American Psychiatric Association, 2002.
47 International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD–10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Summary Report of the 3rd Meeting of the International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD–10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders. World Health Organization, 2008 (http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/icd_summary_report_march_2008.pdf).
48 Naik, M, Nygaard, H. Diagnosing dementia – ICD–10 not so bad after all: a comparison between dementia criteria according to DSM–IV and ICD–10. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008; 23: 279–82.
49 Wiederkehr, S, Simard, M, Fortin, C, van Reekum, R. Comparability of the clinical diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia: a critical review. Part I. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2008; 20: 150–61.
50 Reisberg, B. Diagnostic criteria in dementia: a comparison of current criteria, research challenges, and implications for DSM–V. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2006; 19: 137–46.
51 Kopelman, M, Fleminger, S. Experience and perspectives on the classification of organic mental disorders. Psychopathology 2002; 35: 7681.
52 Hasin, D, Harzenbuehler, M, Keyes, K, Ogburn, E. Substance use disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM–IV) and International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD–10). Addiction 2006; 101 (suppl 1): 5975.
53 Rounsaville, B. Experience with ICD–10/DSM–IV substance use disorders. Psychopathology 2002; 35: 82–8.
54 Bertelsen, A. Schizophrenia and related disorders: experience with current diagnostic systems. Psychopathology 2002; 35: 8993.
55 Paykel, E. Mood disorders: review of current diagnostic systems. Psychopathology 2002; 35: 94–9.
56 Cassidy, F, Yatham, L, Berk, M, Grof, P. Pure and mixed manic subtypes: a review of diagnostic classification and validation. Bipolar Disord 2008; 10: 131–43.
57 Cookson, J. Toward a clinical understanding of bipolar disorders: classification and presentation. Epilepsia 2005; 45 (suppl 4): 37.
58 Lopez-Ibor, J, Frances, A, Jones, C. Dysthymic disorder: a comparison of DSM–IV and ICD–10 and issues in differential diagnosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1994; 383: 12–8.
59 Lopez-Ibor, J. The classification of stress-related disorders in ICD–10 and DSM–IV. Psychopathology 2002; 35: 107–11.
60 Hatzimouraticix, K, Hatzichristou, D. Sexual dysfunctions: classifications and definitions. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 241–50.
61 Vroege, J, Gijs, L, Hengeveld, M. Classification of sexual dysfunctions: towards DSM–V and ICD–11. Compr Psychiatry 1998; 39: 333–7.
62 World Health Organization. The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. WHO, 1993.
63 Kendell, R. The relationship between DSM–IV and ICD–10. J Abnorm Psychol 1991; 100: 297301.
64 Widiger, T, Simonsen, E, Sirovatka, P, Regier, D. Dimensional Models of Personality Disorders: Refining the Research Agenda for DSM–V. American Psychiatric Association, 2007.
65 Saunders, J, Schuckit, M, Sirovatka, P, Regier, D. Diagnostic Issues in Substance Use Disorders. Refining the Research Agenda for DSM–V. American Psychiatric Association, 2007.
66 Bertelsen, A. Wanted: validation studies on the current diagnostic classifications. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002; 106: 81–2.
67 Kessing, LV. Severity of depressive episodes according to ICD–10: prediction of risk of relapse and suicide. Br J Psychiatry 2004; 184: 153–6.
68 Cooper, J. Prospects for Chapter V of ICD–11 and DSM–V. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 183: 379–81.
69 World Health Organization. The Sixth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (ICD–6). WHO, 1948.
70 Sussman, N. In Session with Darrel A. Regier, MD, MPH: The Developmental Process for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Prim Psychiatry 2007; 14: 44–7.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

First supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 PDF (258 KB)
258 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Harmonisation of ICD–11 and DSM–V: opportunities and challenges

  • Michael B. First (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *