Skip to main content

Highlights for this issue

  • Anne Lingford-Hughes, Stuart Watson and Allan Young
  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Highlights for this issue
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Highlights for this issue
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Highlights for this issue
      Available formats
Hide All
1Kessler, R, Berglund, P, Demler, O, Jin, R, Koretz, D, Merikangas, K, et al. National comorbidity survey replication. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 289(23): 3095–105.
2Trevino, K, McClintock, S, McDonald Fischer, N, Vora, A, Husain, M. Defining treatment-resistant depression: a comprehensive review of the literature. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2014; 26(3): 222–32.
3Olchanski, N, McInnis Myers, M, Halseth, M, Cyr, PL, Bockstedt, L, Goss, TF, et al. The economic burden of treatment-resistant depression. Clin Ther 2013; 35(4): 512–22.
4McIntyre, RS, Filteau, M-J, Martin, L, Patry, S, Carvalho, A, Cha, DS, et al. Treatment-resistant depression: definitions, review of the evidence, and algorithmic approach. J Affect Disord 2014; 156: 17.
5Wooderson, SC, Fekadu, A, Markopoulou, K, Rane, LJ, Poon, L, Juruena, MF, et al. Long-term symptomatic and functional outcome following an intensive inpatient multidisciplinary intervention for treatment-resistant affective disorders. J Affect Disord 2014; 166: 334–42.
6Cleare, A, Pariante, C, Young, A, Anderson, I, Christmas, D, Cowen, P, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol 2015; 29(5): 459525.
7Rink, L, Braun, C, Bschor, T, Henssler, J, Franklin, J, Baethge, C. Dose increase versus unchanged continuation of antidepressants after initial antidepressant treatment failure in patients with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind trials. J Clin Psychiatry 2018; 79(3): 17r11693.
8Dunner, D, Rush, A, Russell, J, Burke, M, Woodard, S, Wingard, P, et al. Prospective, long-term, multi-center study of the naturalistic outcomes of patients with treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67(5): 688–95.
9Rush, AJ, Trivedi, MH, Stewart, JW, Nierenberg, AA, Fava, M, Kurian, BT, et al. Combining medications to enhance depression outcomes (CO-MED): acute and long-term outcomes of a single-blind randomized study. Am J Psychiatry 2011; 168(7): 689701.
10Henssler, J, Bschor, T, Baethge, C. Combining antidepressants in acute treatment of depression: a meta-analysis of 38 studies including 4511 patients. Can J Psychiatry 2016; 61(1): 2943.
11Bauer, M, Adli, M, Ricken, R, Severus, E, Pilhatsch, M. Role of lithium augmentation in the management of major depressive disorder. CNS Drugs 2014; 28(4): 331–42.
12Bauer, M, Severus, E, Möller, H-J, Young, AH. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders: summary of WFSBP guidelines. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2017; 21(3): 166–76.
13Bauer, M, Pfennig, A, Severus, E, Whybrow, PC, Angst, J, Möller, H-J. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Unipolar Depressive Disorders, Part 1: update 2013 on the acute and continuation treatment of unipolar depressive disorders. World J Biol Psychiatry 2013; 14(5): 334–85.
14Young, AH. Lithium for long-term treatment of unipolar depression. Lancet Psychiatry 2017; 4(7): 511–2.
15Clemente, AS, Diniz, BS, Nicolato, R, Kapczinski, FP, Soares, JC, Firmo, JO, et al. Bipolar disorder prevalence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2015; 37(2): 155–61.
16Kessing, LV, Vradi, E, Andersen, PK. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2015; 17(5): 543–8.
17Judd, LL, Akiskal, HS, Schettler, PJ, Coryell, W, Endicott, J, Maser, JD, et al. A prospective investigation of the natural history of the long-term weekly symptomatic status of bipolar II disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 261–9.
18Judd, LL, Akiskal, HS, Schettler, PJ, Endicott, J, Maser, J, Solomon, DA, et al. The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002; 59: 530–7.
19National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Bipolar Disorder: Assessment and Management. CG185. NICE, 2014.
20Calabrese, JR, Keck, PE Jr., Macfadden, W, Minkwitz, M, Ketter, TA, Weisler, RH, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of quetiapine in the treatment of bipolar I or II depression. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162(7): 1351–60.
21Tohen, M, Vieta, E, Calabrese, J, Ketter, TA, Sachs, G, Bowden, C, et al. Efficacy of olanzapine and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination in the treatment of bipolar I depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60(11): 1079–88.
22Loebel, A, Cucchiaro, J, Silva, R, Kroger, H, Hsu, J, Sarma, K, et al. Lurasidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar I depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 2014; 171(2): 160–8.
23Loebel, A, Cucchiaro, J, Silva, R, Kroger, H, Sarma, K, Xu, J, et al. Lurasidone as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate for the treatment of bipolar I depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 2014; 171(2): 169–77.
24POMH-UK. Topic 15a Baseline Audit Report. Prescribing Valproate for Bipolar Disorder (CCQI222). 2016
25Brent, DA, Brunwasser, SM, Hollon, SD, Weersing, VR, Clarke, GN, Dickerson, JF, et al. Effect of a cognitive-behavioral prevention program on depression 6 years after implementation among at-risk adolescents: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2015; 72(11): 1110–8.
26Colom, F. 5 Year Efficacy of Group Psychoeducation. Barcelona: 5th European Stanley Conference on Bipolar Disorder, 2006.
27Lam, DH, Hayward, P, Watkins, ER, Wright, K, Sham, P. Relapse prevention in patients with bipolar disorder: cognitive therapy outcome after 2 years. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162(2): 324–9.
28Kessing, LV, Hansen, HV, Hvenegaard, A, Christensen, EM, Dam, H, Gluud, C, et al. Treatment in a specialised out-patient mood disorder clinic v. standard out-patient treatment in the early course of bipolar disorder: randomised clinical trial. Br J Psychiatry 2013; 202(3): 212–9.
29Miklowitz, DJ. Adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder: state of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165(11): 1408–19.
30Lobban, F, Gamble, C, Kinderman, P, Taylor, L, Chandler, C, Tyler, E, et al. Enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder–ERP trial. A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility of training care coordinators to offer enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder. BMC Psychiatry 2007; 7: 6.
31Morriss, R, Lobban, F, Riste, L, Davies, L, Holland, F, Long, R, et al. Clinical effectiveness and acceptability of structured group psychoeducation versus optimised unstructured peer support for patients with remitted bipolar disorder (PARADES): a pragmatic, multicentre, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial. Lancet Psychiatry 2016; 3(11): 1029–38.
32Perry, A, Tarrier, N, Morriss, R, McCarthy, E, Limb, K. Randomised controlled trial of efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder to identify early symptoms of relapse and obtain treatment. BMJ 1999; 318(7177): 149–53.
33Peters, A, Sylvia, LG, Magalhaes, PV, Miklowitz, DJ, Frank, E, Otto, MW, et al. Age at onset, course of illness and response to psychotherapy in bipolar disorder: results from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). Psychol Med 2014; 44(16): 3455–67.
34Scott, J, Paykel, E, Morriss, R, Bentall, R, Kinderman, P, Johnson, T, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for severe and recurrent bipolar disorders: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 313–20.
35Miklowitz, DJ, Otto, MW, Frank, E, Reilly-Harrington, NA, Wisniewski, SR, Kogan, JN, et al. Psychosocial treatments for bipolar depression: a 1-year randomized trial from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64(4): 419–26.
36Kupfer, DJ, Frank, E, Grochocinski, VJ, Luther, JF, Houck, PR, Swartz, HA, et al. Stabilization in the treatment of mania, depression and mixed states. Acta Neuropsychiatr 2000; 12(3): 110–4.
37McCrone, P, Dhanasiri, S, Patel, A, Knapp, M, Lawton-Smith, S. Paying the Price: The Cost of Mental Health Care in England to 2026. The King's Fund, 2008.
38Young, AH, Rigney, U, Shaw, S, Emmas, C, Thompson, JM. Annual cost of managing bipolar disorder to the UK healthcare system. J Affect Disord 2011; 133(3): 450–6.
39Clements, C, Morriss, R, Jones, S, Peters, S, Roberts, C, Kapur, N. Suicide in bipolar disorder in a national English sample, 1996–2009: frequency, trends and characteristics. Psychol Med 2013; 43(12): 2593–602.
40Hawton, K, Sutton, L, Haw, C, Sinclair, J, Harriss, L. Suicide and attempted suicide in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of risk factors. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66(6): 693704.
41Hasin, Y, Seldin, M, Lusis, A. Multi-omics approaches to disease. Genome Biol 2017; 18(1): 83.
42Wise, TMarwood, L, Perkins, AM, Herane-Vives, A, Williams, SCR, Young, AH, Cleare, AJ, Arnone, D. A morphometric signature of depressive symptoms in unmedicated patients with mood disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2018; 138(1): 7382.
43Eichstaedt, JC, Smith, RJ, Merchant, RM, Ungar, LH, Crutchley, P, Preoţiuc-Pietro, D, Asch, DA, Schwartz, HA. Facebook language predicts depression in medical records. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2018; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1802331115.
44Boden, JM, Fergusson, DM. Alcohol and depression. Addiction 2011; 106(5): 906–14.
45Di Florio, A, Craddock, N, van den Bree, M. Alcohol misuse in bipolar disorder. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comorbidity rates. Eur Psychiatry 2014; 29(3): 117–24.
46Patel, S, Shetty, H, Jackson, R, Broadbent, M, Stewart, R, Boydell, J, et al. Delays before diagnosis and initiation of treatment in patients presentating to mental health services with bipolar disorder. PLoS ONE 2015; 10(5): e0126530.
47Lingford-Hughes, A, Welch, S, Peters, L, Nutt, D, British Association for Psychopharmacology ERG. BAP updated guidelines: evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity: recommendations from BAP. J Psychopharmacology 2012; 26(7): 899952.
48Agabio, R, Trogu, E, Pani, PP. Antidepressants for the treatment of people with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 4: CD008581.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Highlights for this issue

  • Anne Lingford-Hughes, Stuart Watson and Allan Young
Submit a response


No eLetters have been published for this article.


Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *