Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Hippocampal volume change in depression: Late- and early-onset illness compared

  • Adrian J. Lloyd (a1), I. Nicol Ferrier (a2), Robert Barber (a3), Anil Gholkar (a4), Allan H. Young (a5) and John T. O'Brien (a5)...
Abstract
Background

Evidence for structural hippocampal change in depression is limited despite reports of neuronal damage due to hypercortisolaemia and vascular pathology.

Aims

To compare hippocampal and white matter structural change in demographically matched controls and participants with early-onset and late-onset depression.

Method

High-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and rating of MRI hyperintensities.

Results

A total of 51 people with depression and 39 control participants were included. Participants with late-onset depression had bilateral hippocampal atrophy compared with those with early-onset depression and controls. Hippocampal volumes did not differ between control participants and those with early-onset depression. Age of depression onset correlated (negatively) with hippocampal volume but lifetime duration of depression did not. Hyperintensity ratings did not differ between groups.

Conclusions

Results suggest that acquired biological factors are of greater importance in late-than in early-onset illness and that pathological processes other than exposure to hypercortisolaemia of depression underlie hippocampal atrophy in depression of late life.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Hippocampal volume change in depression: Late- and early-onset illness compared
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Hippocampal volume change in depression: Late- and early-onset illness compared
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Hippocampal volume change in depression: Late- and early-onset illness compared
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Dr A. J. Lloyd, School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Leazes Wing, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne NEI 4LP, UK. E-mail: a.j.lloyd@ncl.ac.uk
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

Funding from the Wellcome Trust and the Stanley Foundation.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Axelson, D. A., Doraiswamy, P. M., McDonald, W. M., et al (1993) Hypercortisolaemia and hippocampal changes in depression. Psychiatry Research, 47, 163173.
Bell-McGinty, S., Butters, M. A., Meltzer, C. C., et al (2002) Brain morphometric abnormalities in geriatric depression: long-term neurobiological effects of illness duration. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 14241427.
De Kloet, E. R., Vreugdenhil, E., Oitzl, M. S., et al (1998) Brain corticosteroid receptor balance in health and disease. Endocrine Reviews, 19, 269301.
Everson, S. A., Roberts, R. E., Goldberg, D. E., et al (1998) Depressive symptoms and increased risk of stroke mortality over a 29-year period. Archives of Internal Medicine, 158, 11331138.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. (1975) ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Jackson, G. D. & Duncan, J. S. (1996) MRI Neuroanatomy: A New Angle on the Brain. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Jorm, A. F., van Duijn, C. M., Chandra, V., et al (1991) Psychiatric history and related exposures as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case–control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20, S43S47.
Kalimi, M., Shafagoj, Y., Loria, R., et al (1994) Anti-glucocorticoid effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 131, 99104.
Kapeller, P., Barber, R., Vermeulen, R. J., et al (2003) Visual rating of age-related white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging: scale comparison, interrater agreement, and correlations with quantitative measurements. Stroke, 34, 441445.
Lucassen, P. J., Muller, M. B., Holsboer, F., et al (2001) Hippocampal apoptosis in major depression is a minor event and absent from subareas at risk for glucocorticoid overexposure. American Journal of Pathology, 158, 453468.
McEwen, B. S., De Kloet, E. R. & Rostene, W. (1986) Adrenal steroid receptors and actions in the nervous system. Physiological Reviews, 66, 11211188.
Mervaala, E., Fohr, J., Kononen, M., et al (2000) Quantitative MRI of the hippocampus and amygdala in severe depression. Psychological Medicine, 30, 117125.
Montgomery, S. A. & Åsberg, M. (1979) Anew depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382389.
Nelson, H. E. (1982) National Adult Reading Test. Windsor: NFER–Nelson.
O'Brien, J. T. (1997) The ‘glucocorticoid cascade’ hypothesis in man. Prolonged stress may cause permanent brain damage. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 199201.
O'Brien, J. T., Ames, D. & Schweitzer, I. (1996) White matter changes in depression and Alzheimer's disease: a review of magnetic resonance imaging studies. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 681694.
O'Brien, J. T., Lloyd, A. J., McKeith, I. G., et al (2004) A longitudinal study of hippocampal volume, cortisol levels and cognition in older depressed subjects. American Journal of Psychiatryin press.
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1991) Standard Occupational Classification. London: HMSO.
Roth, M., Tym, E., Mountjoy, C. Q., et al (1986) CAMDEX: a standardised instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 698709.
Salloway, S., Malloy, P., Kohn, R., et al (1996) MRI and neuropsychological differences in early- and late-life-onset geriatric depression. Neurology, 46, 15671574.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2000) The possibility of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus in major depression: a primer on neuron death. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 755765.
Sapolsky, R. M., Krey, L. C. & McEwen, B. S. (1986) The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Endocrine Reviews, 7, 284301.
Scheltens, P., Barkhof, F., Leys, D., et al (1993) A semiquantitative rating scale for the assessment of signal hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 114, 712.
Sheline, Y. I., Wang, P. W., Gado, M. H., et al (1996) Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 93, 39083913.
Sheline, Y. L., Sanghavi, M., Mintun, M. A., et al (1999) Depression duration but not age predicts hippocampal volume loss in medically healthy women with recurrent major depression. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 50345043.
Steffens, D. C., Byrum, C. E., McQuoid, D. R., et al (2000) Hippocampal volume in geriatric depression. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 301309.
Talairach, J. & Tournoux, P. (1998) Co-Planar Stereotoxic Atlas of the Human Brain (trans. Rayport, M.). Stuttgart: Thieme.
Thomas, A. J., O'Brien, J. T., Davis, S., et al (2002) Ischemic basis for deep white matter hyperintensities in major depression: a neuropathological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 785–92.
Wolf, P. A., D'Agostino, R. B., Belanger, A. J., et al (1991) Probability of stroke: a risk profile from the Framingham Study. Stroke, 22, 312318.
Yen, S. S. & Laughlin, G. A. (1998) Aging and the adrenal cortex. Experimental Gerontology, 33, 897910.
Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., et al (1983) Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 3739.
Young, A. H., Gallagher, P. & Porter, R. J. (2002) Elevation of the cortisol: dehydroepi and roster one ratio in drug-free depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 12371239.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Lloyd et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 Unknown (513 bytes)
513 bytes
PDF
Supplementary materials

Lloyd et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Table S1

 PDF (37 KB)
37 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Hippocampal volume change in depression: Late- and early-onset illness compared

  • Adrian J. Lloyd (a1), I. Nicol Ferrier (a2), Robert Barber (a3), Anil Gholkar (a4), Allan H. Young (a5) and John T. O'Brien (a5)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *