Skip to main content

Imprinting and Anticipation: Are They Relevant to Genetic Studies of Schizophrenia?

  • Philip Asherson (a1), Cathy Walsh (a2), Julie Williams (a1), Mathew Sargeant (a3), Celia Taylor (a2), Alison Clements (a2), Michael Gill (a2), Michael Owen (a1) and Peter McGuffin (a1)...

Among 29 multiply affected pedigrees, age of onset among parents and offspring was examined for evidence of both anticipation and genomic imprinting. The results do not suggest that either mechanism is operating in schizophrenia, but only very large effects can be confidently excluded.

Corresponding author
Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF4 4XN
Hide All
Andrew, B., Watt, D. C., Gillespie, C., et al (1987) A study of genetic linkage in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 17, 363370.
Bell, J. (1947) Dystrophica myotonica and allied diseases. The Treasury of Human Inheritance, Vol. 4, part 5. Cambridge University Press.
Bleuler, M. (1978) Translated as The Schizophrenic Disorders by S. Clemens. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Brook, J., McCurrach, M., Harley, H., et al (1992) Molecular basis of myotonic dystrophy: expansion of a trinucleotide (CTG) repeat at the 3' end of a transcript encoding a protein kinase family member. Cell, 68, 799808.
Caskey, C., Pizzoti, A., Fu, Y., et al (1992) Triplet repeat mutations in human disease. Science, 256, 784789.
Farmer, A. E., Katz, R., McGuffin, P., et al (1987) A comparison between the Present State Examination and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 10641068.
Farmer, A. E., Cosyns, P., Leboyer, M., et al (1993) A SCAN-SADS comparison study of psychotic subjects and their first-degree relatives. European Archives of Clinical Neuroscience, 242, 352356.
Gill, M., McGuffin, P., Parfitt, E., et al (1993) A linkage study of schizophrenia with DNA markers from the long arm of chromosome 11. Psychological Medicine, 23, 2744.
Greenfield, J. (1911) Notes on a family with myotonica atrophica and early cataract with report of an additional case of myotonia atrophica. Reviews in Neurology and Psychiatry, 9, 169181.
Hall, J. G. (1990) Genomic imprinting: review and relevance to human diseases. American Journal of Human Genetics, 46, 853857.
Harper, S., Helen, H., Reardon, W. et al (1992) Anticipation in myotonic dystrophy: new light on an old problem. American Journal of Human Genetics, 51, 1016.
Harrison, P. (1993) Alzheimer's disease and chromosome 14: different gene, same process? British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 25.
Hattersley, A., Turner, R., Permutt, A., et al (1992) Linkage of type 2 diabetes to the glucokinase gene. Lancet, 339, 13071310.
Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group (1993) A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's Disease chromosomes. Cell, 72, 971983.
Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W., McDonald-Scott, P., et al (1981) Reliability of lifetime diagnosis and symptoms in patients with a current psychiatric disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 16, 229240.
Leboyer, M. & McGuffin, P. (1991) Collaborative strategies in the molecular genetics of the major psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 605610.
McGuffin, P. (1988) Genetics of schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia: the Major Issues (eds Bebbington, P. & McGuffin, P.), pp. 107126. London: Heinemann Medical.
McGuffin, P., Katz, R. & Aldrich, J. (1986) Past and present state examination: the assessment of ‘lifetime ever’ psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 16, 461465.
McGuffin, P., Farmer, A. & Harvey, I. (1991) A polydiagnostic application of operational criteria in studies of psychotic illness: development and reliability of the OPCRIT system. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 764770.
McGuffin, P., Asherson, P., Farmer, A. & Owen, M. (1994) The strength of the genetic evidence - Is there room for an environmental influence in the aetiology of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, in press.
Mott, F. W. (1910) Hereditary aspect of nervous and mental diseases. British Medical Journal, ii, 10131020.
Penrose, L. S. (1945) Survey of cases of familial mental illness. Published (1991) in European Archives of Clinical Neuroscience, 240, 314324.
Penrose, L. S. (1948) The problem of anticipation in pedigrees of dystrophia myotonica. Annals of Eugenics, 14, 125132.
Ridley, R. M., Frith, C. D., Crow, T. J., et al (1988) Anticipation in Huntington's disease is inherited through the male line but may originate in the female. Journal of Medical Genetics, 25, 589595.
Robins, L. N., Wing, J., Wittchen, H. V., et al (1988) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 10691078.
Sherman, S. L., Jacobs, P. A., Morton, N. E., et al (1985) Further segregation analysis of the fragile X syndrome with special reference to transmitting males. Human Genetics, 68, 289299.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978) Research diagnostic criteria for a selected group of functional disorders (3rd edn). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Sturt, E. & McGuffin, P. (1985) Can linkage and marker association resolve the genetic aetiology of psychiatric disorders: review and argument. Psychological Medicine, 15, 455462.
Turk, J. (1992) The fragile-X syndrome: on the way to a behavioural phenotype. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 2435.
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974) The Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wing, J. K., Babor, T., Burke, J., et al (1990) SCAN: Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 589593.
Yu, S., Kremer, E., Pritchard, M., et al (1991) The fragile X genotype is characterised by an unstable region of DNA. Science, 252, 11791181.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Imprinting and Anticipation: Are They Relevant to Genetic Studies of Schizophrenia?

  • Philip Asherson (a1), Cathy Walsh (a2), Julie Williams (a1), Mathew Sargeant (a3), Celia Taylor (a2), Alison Clements (a2), Michael Gill (a2), Michael Owen (a1) and Peter McGuffin (a1)...
Submit a response


No eLetters have been published for this article.


Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *