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The individual course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with Alzheimer's and Lewy body dementia: 12-year longitudinal cohort study

  • Audun Osland Vik-Mo (a1), Lasse Melvaer Giil (a2), Miguel Germán Borda (a3), Clive Ballard (a4) and Dag Aarsland (a5)...



Understanding the natural course of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia is important for planning patient care and trial design, but few studies have described the long-term course of NPS in individuals.


Primary inclusion of 223 patients with suspected mild dementia from general practice were followed by annual assessment, including the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), for up to 12 years. Total and item NPI scores were classified as stable, relapsing, single episodic or not present based on 4.96 (s.d. 2.3) observations (98% completeness of longitudinal data) for 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 84 patients with LBD (68 dementia with Lewy bodies and 16 Parkinson's disease dementia).


We found that 80% had stable NPI total ≥1, 50% had stable modest NPI total ≥12 and 25% had stable NPI total ≥24 scores. Very severe NPS (≥48) were mostly single episodes, but 8% of patients with Alzheimer's disease had stable severe NPS. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and the highest 20% NPI total scores had a more stable or relapsing course of four key symptoms: aberrant motor behaviour, aggression/agitation, delusions and irritability (odds ratio 55, P < 0.001). This was not seen in LBD. Finally, 57% of patients with Alzheimer's disease and 84% of patients with LBD had reoccurring psychotic symptoms.


We observed a highly individual course of NPS, with most presenting as a single episode or relapsing; a stable course was less common, especially in LBD. These findings demonstrate the importance of an individualised approach (i.e. personalised medicine) in dementia care.

Declaration of interest

A.O.V.-M., L.M.G. and M.G.B. declare that they have no conflict of interest. C.B. has received grants and personal fees from Acadia and Lundbeck and personal fees from Heptares, Roche, Lilly, Otsuka, Orion, GSK and Pfizer. D.A. has received research support and/or honoraria from Astra-Zeneca, H. Lundbeck, Novartis Pharmaceuticals and GE Healthcare and serves as paid consultant for H. Lundbeck, Eisai and Axovant.


Corresponding author

Correspondence: Audun Osland Vik-Mo, Centre for Age-Related Medicine (SESAM), Helse Stavanger, PB 8100, N-4068 Stavanger, Norway. Email:


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The individual course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with Alzheimer's and Lewy body dementia: 12-year longitudinal cohort study

  • Audun Osland Vik-Mo (a1), Lasse Melvaer Giil (a2), Miguel Germán Borda (a3), Clive Ballard (a4) and Dag Aarsland (a5)...
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