Skip to main content
×
×
Home

International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: An ecological analysis

  • Malcolm Peet (a1)
Abstract
Background

Dietary variations are known to predict the prevalence of physical illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease but the possible influence of diet on mental health has been neglected.

Aims

To explore dietary predictors of the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression.

Method

Ecological analysis of national dietary patterns in relation to international variations in outcome of schizophrenia and prevalence of depression.

Results

A higher national dietary intake of refined sugar and dairy products predicted a worse 2-year outcome of schizophrenia. A high national prevalence of depression was predicted by a low dietary intake of fish and seafood.

Conclusions

The dietary predictors of outcome of schizophrenia and prevalence of depression are similar to those that predict illnesses such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, which are more common in people with mental health problems and in which nutritional approaches are widely recommended. Dietary intervention studies are indicated in schizophrenia and depression.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: An ecological analysis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: An ecological analysis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: An ecological analysis
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Christensen, O. & Christensen, E. (1988) Fat consumption and schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78, 587591.
De Fronzo, R. A. & Ferrannini, E. (1991) Insulin resistance: a multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care, 14, 173194.
Durany, N., Michell, T., Zochling, R., et al (2001) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3 in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 52, 89–86.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2002) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Statistical Database: http://apps.fao.org/default.jsp
Hansen, B. C. (1999) The metabolic syndrome X. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 892, 124.
Hibbeln, J. (1998) Fish consumption and major depression (letter). Lancet, 351, 1213.
Hibbeln, J. R. & Salem, N. Jr. (1995) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 19.
Hopper, K. & Wanderling, J. (2000) Revisiting the developed versus developing country distinction in course and outcome in schizophrenia: results from ISOS, the WHO collaborative follow-up project. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 835846.
Jablensky, A., Sartorius, N., Emberg, G., et al (1992) Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures: a World Health Organization 10-country study. Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement, 20, 197.
Kyriaki, G. (2003) Brain insulin: regulation, mechanisms of action and functions. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 23, 125.
Ludwig, D. S. (2002) The Glycaemic Index. Physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. JAMA, 287, 24142423.
Mann, J. I. (2002) Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Lancet, 360, 783789.
Meiers, R. L. (1973) Relative hypoglycaemia in schizophrenia. In Orthomolecular Psychiatry (eds Hawkings, D. & Pauling, L.), pp. 452462. San Francisco, CA: W H. Freeman.
Molteni, R., Barnard, R. J., Ying, Z., et al (2002) A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal plasticity, and learning. Neuroscience, 112, 803814.
Nemets, B., Stahl, Z. & Belmaker, R. H. (2002) Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 477479.
Peet, M. & Edwards, Rh. W. (1997) Lipids, depression and physical diseases. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 10, 477480.
Peet, M. & Horrobin, D. F. (2002) A dose-ranging study of ethyleicosapentaenoic acid in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 913919.
Ryan, M. C. & Thakore, J. H. (2002) Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences, 71, 239257.
Summers, L. K., Fielding, B. A., Bradshaw, H. A., et al (2002) Substituting dietary fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia, 45, 369377.
Tucker, K. L. & Buranapin, S. (2001) Nutrition and aging in developing countries. Journal of Nutrition, 131, 2417S2423S.
Weissman, M. M., Bland, R. C., Canino, C. J., et al (1996) Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. JAMA, 276, 293299.
Westover, A. N. & Marangell, L. B. (2002) Across-national relationship between sugar consumption and major depression. Depression and Anxiety, 16, 118130.
World Health Organization (1979) Schizophrenia: an International Follow-up Study. New York: John Wiley.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: An ecological analysis

  • Malcolm Peet (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *