Orrell, M, Woods, B, Spector, A. Should we use cognitive stimulation therapy to improve cognitive function in people with dementia?
2012; 344: e633.
Woods, B, Aguirre, E, Spector, A, Orrell, M. Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2012; 2: CD005562.
Prince, M, Bryce, R, Ferri, C. World Alzheimer Report: The Benefits of Early Diagnosis and Intervention.
, 2011 (www.alz.co.uk/worldreport2011).
Spector, A, Thorgrimsen, L, Woods, B, Royan, L, Davies, S, Butterworth, M, et al. Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia. Randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry
2003; 183: 248–54.
Spector, A, Thorgrimsen, L, Woods, B, Orrell, M. Reality orientation for dementia: a systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness from randomised controlled trials. Gerontologist
2000; 40: 206–12.
Spector, A, Davies, S, Woods, B, Orrell, M. Can reality orientation be rehabilitated? Development and piloting of an evidence-based programme of cognition-based therapies for people with dementia. Neuropsychol Rehabil
2001; 11: 377–97.
Spector, A, Thorgrimsen, L, Woods, B, Orrell, M. Making a Difference: An Evidence Based Group Programme to Offer Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) to People With Dementia: Manual for Group Leaders.
Hawker Publications, 2006.
Orrell, M, Spector, A, Thorgrimsen, L, Woods, B. A pilot study examining the effectiveness of Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (Maintenance CST) for people with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2005; 20: 446–51.
Buschert, VC, Friese, U, Teipel, SJ, Schneider, P, Merensky, W, Rujescu, D, et al. Effects of a newly developed cognitive intervention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study. J Alzheimers Dis
2011; 25: 679–94.
Requena, C, Maestu, F, Campo, P, Fernandez, A, Ortiz, T. Effects of cholinergic drugs and cognitive training on dementia: 2-year follow up. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis
2006; 22: 339–45.
Chapman, SB, Weiner, MF, Rackley, A, Hynan, LS, Zientz, J. Effects of cognitive-communication stimulation for Alzheimer's disease patients treated with donepezil. J Speech Lang Hear Res
2004; 47: 1149–63.
Aguirre, E, Spector, A, Hoe, J, Knapp, M, Woods, B, Orrell, M, et al. Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for dementia: a single-blind, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of Maintenance CST vs. CST for dementia. Trials
2010; 11: 46 (http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/pdf/1745-6215-11-46.pdf).
Aguirre, E, Hoare, Z, Streater, A, Spector, A, Woods, B, Hoe, J, et al. Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for people with dementia - who benefits most?
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2013; 28: 284–90.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) . APA, 1994.
Hughes, CP, Berg, L, Danziger, WL, Coben, LA, Martin, RL. A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry
1982; 140: 566–72.
Aguirre, E, Spector, A, Hoe, J, Streater, A, Woods, RT, Orrell, M, et al. Development of an evidence-based extended programme of maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for people with dementia. Nonpharmacol Ther Dement
2011; 1: 197–216.
Medical Research Council. A Framework for Development and Evaluation of RCTs for Complex Interventions to Improve Health.
Craig, P, Dieppe, P, MacIntyre, S, Mitchie, S, Nazareth, I, Petticrew, M. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ
2008; 337: a1655.
Cummings, L, Mega, M, Gray, K, Rosenberg-Thompson, S, Carusi, DA, Gornbein, J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology
1994; 44: 2308–14.
Galasko, D, Bennet, D, Sano, M, Ernesto, C, Thomas, R, Ferris, S, et al. An inventory to assess activities of daily living for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease: the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
1997; 11: S33–9.
Rosen, WG, Mohs, RC, Davis, KL. A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry
1984; 141: 1356–64.
Logsdon, RG, Gibbons, LE, McCurry, SM, Teri, L. Assessing quality of life in older adults with cognitive impairment. Psychosom Med
2002; 64: 510–9.
Moniz-Cook, E, Vernooij-Dassen, M, Woods, R, Verhey, F, Chattat, R, Orrell, M, et al. A European consensus on outcome measures for psychosocial intervention research in dementia care. Aging Ment Health
2008; 12: 14–25.
Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE, McHugh, PR. Mini Mental State. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res
1975; 12: 189–98.
Smith, SC, Lamping, DL, Banerjee, S, Harwood, R, Foley, B, Knapp, M, et al. Measurement of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: development of a new instrument (DEMQOL) and an evaluation of current methodology. Health Technol Assess
2005; 9: 1–93.
Knapp, M, Thorgrimsen, L, Patel, A, Spector, A, Hallam, A, Woods, B, et al. Cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia: cost-effectiveness analysis. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 188: 574–80.
Jonsson, L, Lindgren, P, Wimo, A, Jönsson, B, Winblad, B. Costs of Mini Mental Examination-related cognitive impairment. Pharmaeconomics
1999; 16: 409–16.
Streater, A, Spector, A, Aguirre, E, Hoe, J, Hoare, Z, Orrell, M, et al. Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) in practice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials
2012; 13: 91.
Clark, CM, Sheppard, L, Fillenbaum, GG, Galasko, D, Morris, JC, Heyman, A. Variability in annual Mini-Mental State Examination score in patients with probable Alzheimer Disease. Arch Neurol
1999; 56: 857–62.
Zanetti, O, Frisoni, GB, De Leo, D, Buono, MD, Bianchetti, A, Trabucci, M. Reality orientation therapy in Alzheimer's disease: useful or not? A controlled study. Alzheimers Dis Assoc Disord
1995; 9: 132–8.
Metitieri, T, Zanetti, O, Geroldi, C, Frisoni, GB, De Leo, D, Trabucchi, M. Reality orientation therapy to delay outcomes of progression in patients with dementia: a retrospective study. Clin Rehab
2001, 15: 471–8
Woods, B, Thorgrimsen, L, Spector, A, Royan, L, Orrell, M. Improved quality of life and cognitive stimulation therapy in dementia. Aging Ment Health
2006; 10: 219–26.
Cooper, C, Mukadam, N, Katona, C, Lyketsos, CG, Blazer, D, Livingston, G, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions to improve quality of life and well-being in people with dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2013; 21: 173–80.
Cooper, C, Mukadam, M, Katona, C, Lyketsos, C, Ames, D, Livingston, G, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to improve quality of life of people with dementia. Int Psychogeriatr
2012; 24: 856–70.
Selwood, A, Thorgrimsen, L, Orrell, M. Quality of life in dementia—a one-year follow-up study. Int J Geriat Psychiatry
2005; 20: 232–7.
Lyketsos, CG, Gonzales-Salvador, T, Chin, J, Baker, A, Black, B, Rabins, P. A follow-up study of change in quality of life among persons with dementia residing in a long-term care facility. Int J Geriat Psychiatry
2003; 18: 275–81.
Missotten, P, Ylieff, M, Di Notte, D, Paquay, L, De Lepeleire, J, Fontaine, O. Quality of life in dementia: a 2-year follow-up study. Int J Geriat Psychiatry
2007; 22: 1201–7.
Orrell, M, Yates, L, Burns, A, Russell, I, Woods, RT, Hoare, Z, et al. Individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Dementia (iCST Trial). Trials
2012; 13: 172.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the Social Care Institute for Excellence (NICE-SCIE). Dementia: Supporting People with Dementia and their Carers in Health and Social Care. Clinical Guideline 42.
NICE and SCIE, 2007.