Office for National Statistics. Statistics on Smoking: England 2006. ONS, 2006.
NHS Information Centre. Statistics on Alcohol: England 2007. The Information Centre, 2007.
Fried, PA. Conceptual issues in behavioral teratology and their application in determining long-term sequelae of prenatal marihuana exposure. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2002; 43: 81–102.
Huizink, AC, Mulder, EJ. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring. Neurosci Biobehav Rev
2006; 30: 24–41.
Andres, RL, Day, MC. Perinatal complications associated with maternal tobacco use. Semin Neonatol
2000; 5: 231–41.
Ernst, M, Moolchan, ET, Robinson, ML. Behavioral and neural consequences of prenatal exposure to nicotine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2001; 40: 630–41.
Winzer-Serhan, UH. Long-term consequences of maternal smoking and developmental chronic nicotine exposure. Front Biosci
2008; 13: 636–49.
Fried, PA, Watkinson, B, Gray, R. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 13- to 16-year-olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicol Teratol
2003; 25: 427–36.
Mortensen, EL, Michaelsen, KF, Sanders, SA, Reinisch, JM. A dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during late pregnancy and adult intelligence in male offspring. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
2005; 19: 4–11.
Fergusson, DM, Woodward, LJ, Horwood, LJ. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1998; 55: 721–7.
Linnet, KM, Dalsgaard, S, Obel, C, Wisborg, K, Henriksen, TB, Rodriguez, A, et al. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence. Am J Psychiatry
2003; 160: 1028–40.
Thapar, A, Fowler, T, Rice, F, Scourfield, J, van den Bree, M, Thomas, H, et al. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. Am J Psychiatry
2003; 160: 1985–9.
Smith, GD. Assessing intrauterine influences on offspring health outcomes: can epidemiological studies yield robust findings?
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol
2008; 102: 245–56.
Dwyer, JB, Broide, RS, Leslie, FM. Nicotine and brain development. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today
2008; 84: 30–44.
Slotkin, TA. Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
2004; 198: 132–51.
Sundram, S. Cannabis and neurodevelopment: implications for psychiatric disorders. Hum Psychopharmacol
2006; 21: 245–54.
Cannon, M, Jones, PB, Murray, RM. Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: historical and meta-analytic review. Am J Psychiatry
2002; 159: 1080–92.
Jones, PB, Rantakallio, P, Hartikainen, AL, Isohanni, M, Sipila, P. Schizophrenia as a long-term outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and perinatal complications: a 28-year follow-up of the 1966 north Finland general population birth cohort. Am J Psychiatry
1998; 155: 355–64.
Sacker, A, Done, DJ, Crow, TJ, Golding, J. Antecedents of schizophrenia and affective illness. Obstetric complications. Br J Psychiatry
1995; 166: 734–41.
Spauwen, J, Krabbendam, L, Lieb, R, Wittchen, HU, van Os, J. Early maternal stress and health behaviours and offspring expression of psychosis in adolescence. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2004; 110: 356–64.
Horwood, J, Salvi, G, Thomas, K, Duffy, L, Gunnell, D, Hollis, C, et al. IQ and non-clinical psychotic symptoms in 12-year-olds: results from the ALSPAC birth cohort. Br J Psychiatry
2008; 193: 185–91.
Golding, J, Pembrey, M, Jones, R. ALSPAC – the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
2001; 15: 74–87.
Shaffer, D, Fisher, P, Lucas, CP, Dulcan, MK, Schwab-Stone, ME. NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2000; 39: 28–38.
World Health Organization. Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. American Psychiatric Research, 1994.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA, 1994.
World Health Organization. The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO, 1992.
Office for Population Censuses and Surveys. Standard Occupational Classification 1990. OPCS, 1990.
Cox, JL, Holden, JM, Sagovsky, R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry
1987; 150: 782–6.
Wechsler, D. Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd edn) . Psychological Corporation, 1991.
Raghunathan, TE, Lepkowski, JM, Van Hoewyk, J, Solenberger, P. A multivariate technique for multiply imputing missing values using a sequence of regression models. Surv Methodol
2001; 27: 85–95.
Royston, P. Multiple imputation of missing values. The Stata Journal
2004; 3: 227–41.
Kirkwood, BR, Sterne, JAC. Regression modelling. In Essential Medical Statistics (eds Kirkwood, BR, Sterne, JAC): 337–9. Blackwell Science, 2003.
Spencer, N. Explaining the social gradient in smoking in pregnancy: early life course accumulation and cross-sectional clustering of social risk exposures in the 1958 British national cohort. Soc Sci Med
2006; 62: 1250–9.
Wicks, S, Hjern, A, Gunnell, D, Lewis, G, Dalman, C. Social adversity in childhood and the risk of developing psychosis: a national cohort study. Am J Psychiatry
2005; 162: 1652–7.
Day, NL, Cottreau, CM, Richardson, GA. The epidemiology of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use among women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Clin Obstet Gynecol
1993; 36: 232–45.
Callaway, LK, McIntyre, HD, O'Callaghan, M, Williams, GM, Najman, JM, Lawlor, DA. The association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: findings from a prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol
2007; 166: 421–8.
Plewis, I, Calderwoof, L, Hawkes, D, Nathan, G. National Child Development Study and 1970 British Cohort Study Technical Report: Changes in the NCDS and BCS70 Populations and Samples Over Time. Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, 2004.
St Clair, D, Xu, M, Wang, P, Yu, Y, Fang, Y, Zhang, F, et al. Rates of adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959–1961. JAMA
2005; 294: 557–62.
Susser, E, Neugebauer, R, Hoek, HW, Brown, AS, Lin, S, Labovitz, D, et al. Schizophrenia after prenatal famine. Further evidence. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1996; 53: 25–31.
Brown, AS, Begg, MD, Gravenstein, S, Schaefer, CA, Wyatt, RJ, Bresnahan, M, et al. Serologic evidence of prenatal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2004; 61: 774–80.
Byrne, M, Agerbo, E, Bennedsen, B, Eaton, WW, Mortensen, PB. Obstetric conditions and risk of first admission with schizophrenia: a Danish national register based study. Schizophr Res
2007; 97: 51–9.
Wang, X, Tager, IB, Van Vunakis, H, Speizer, FE, Hanrahan, JP. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, urine cotinine concentrations, and birth outcomes. A prospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol
1997; 26: 978–88.
Jaddoe, VW, Verburg, BO, de Ridder, MA, Hofman, A, Mackenbach, JP, Moll, HA, et al. Maternal smoking and fetal growth characteristics in different periods of pregnancy: the generation R study. Am J Epidemiol
2007; 165: 1207–15.
Burd, L, Roberts, D, Olson, M, Odendaal, H. Ethanol and the placenta: a review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med
2007; 20: 361–75.
Henderson, J, Gray, R, Brocklehurst, P. Systematic review of effects of low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on pregnancy outcome. BJOG
2007; 114: 243–52.
Poulton, R, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Cannon, M, Murray, R, Harrington, H. Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2000; 57: 1053–8.
Hanssen, M, Bak, M, Bijl, R, Vollebergh, W, van Os, J. The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population. Br J Clin Psychol
2005; 44: 181–91.
Eaton, WW, Romanoski, A, Anthony, JC, Nestadt, G. Screening for psychosis in the general population with a self-report interview. J Nerv Ment Dis
1991; 179: 689–93.
Johns, LC, Cannon, M, Singleton, N, Murray, RM, Farrell, M, Brugha, T, et al. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported psychotic symptoms in the British population. Br J Psychiatry
2004; 185: 298–305.
van Os, J, Hanssen, M, Bijl, RV, Vollebergh, W. Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community level of psychotic symptoms: an urban-rural comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2001; 58: 663–8.
Wiles, NJ, Zammit, S, Bebbington, P, Singleton, N, Meltzer, H, Lewis, G. Self-reported psychotic symptoms in the general population. Results from the longitudinal study of the British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 188: 519–26.
Rossler, W, Riecher-Rossler, A, Angst, J, Murray, R, Gamma, A, Eich, D, et al. Psychotic experiences in the general population: a twenty-year prospective community study. Schizophr Res
2007; 92: 1–14.