1Merikangas, KR, Jin, R, He, JP, Kessler, RC, Lee, S, Sampson, NA, et al. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in the world mental health survey initiative. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011; 68: 241–51.
2Krahn, GL. WHO World Report on Disability: a review. Disabil Health J 2011; 4: 141–2.
3Saunders, KE, Bilderbeck, AC, Price, J, Goodwin, GM. Distinguishing bipolar disorder from borderline personality disorder: a study of current clinical practice. Eur Psychiatry 2015; 30: 965–74.
4Baldessarini, RJ, Tondo, L, Baethge, CJ, Lepri, B, Bratti, IM. Effects of treatment latency on response to maintenance treatment in manic-depressive disorders. Bipolar Disord 2007; 9: 386–93.
5Joyce, K, Thompson, A, Marwaha, S. Is treatment for bipolar disorder more effective earlier in illness course? A comprehensive literature review. Int J Bipolar Disord 2016; 4: 19.
6Munkholm, K, Vinberg, M, Vedel Kessing, L. Cytokines in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2013; 144: 16–27.
7Fernandes, BS, Molendijk, ML, Kohler, CA, Soares, JC, Leite, CM, Machado-Vieira, R, et al. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of 52 studies. BMC Med 2015; 13: 289.
8Green, EK, Raybould, R, Macgregor, S, Hyde, S, Young, AH, O'Donovan, MC, et al. Genetic variation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in bipolar disorder: case-control study of over 3000 individuals from the UK. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 21–5.
9Lu, B, Pang, PT, Woo, NH. The yin and yang of neurotrophin action. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 6: 603–14.
10Grande, I, Fries, GR, Kunz, M, Kapczinski, F. The role of BDNF as a mediator of neuroplasticity in bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Investig 2010; 7: 243–50.
11Wu, R, Fan, J, Zhao, J, Calabrese, JR, Gao, K. The relationship between neurotrophins and bipolar disorder. Expert Rev Neurother 2014; 14: 51–65.
12Lin, PY. State-dependent decrease in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder: a meta-analytic study. Neurosci Lett 2009; 466: 139–43.
13Polyakova, M, Stuke, K, Schuemberg, K, Mueller, K, Schoenknecht, P, Schroeter, ML. BDNF as a biomarker for successful treatment of mood disorders: a systematic & quantitative meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2015; 174: 432–40.
14Munkholm, K, Vinberg, M, Kessing, LV. Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 2016; 21: 216–28.
15Fries, GR, Pfaffenseller, B, Stertz, L, Paz, AV, Dargel, AA, Kunz, M, et al. Staging and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2012; 14: 667–75.
16Munkholm, K, Brauner, JV, Kessing, LV, Vinberg, M. Cytokines in bipolar disorder v. healthy control subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res 2013; 47: 1119–33.
17Modabbernia, A, Taslimi, S, Brietzke, E, Ashrafi, M. Cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of 30 studies. Biol Psychiatry 2013; 74: 15–25.
18Andreazza, AC, Kauer-Sant'anna, M, Frey, BN, Bond, DJ, Kapczinski, F, Young, LT, et al. Oxidative stress markers in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2008; 111: 135–44.
19Brown, NC, Andreazza, AC, Young, LT. An updated meta-analysis of oxidative stress markers in bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res 2014; 218: 61–8.
20Haenisch, F, Cooper, JD, Reif, A, Kittel-Schneider, S, Steiner, J, Leweke, FM, et al. Towards a blood-based diagnostic panel for bipolar disorder. Brain Behav Immun 2016; 52: 49–57.
21Le-Niculescu, H, Kurian, SM, Yehyawi, N, Dike, C, Patel, SD, Edenberg, HJ, et al. Identifying blood biomarkers for mood disorders using convergent functional genomics. Mol Psychiatry 2009; 14: 156–74.
22Dayan, CM. Interpretation of thyroid function tests. Lancet 2001; 357: 619–24.
23Haddow, JE, Palomaki, GE, Knight, GJ, Foster, DL, Neveux, LM. Second trimester screening for Down's syndrome using maternal serum dimeric inhibin A. J Med Screen 1998; 5: 115–9.
24Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151: 264–9.
25Haddaway, NR, Collins, AM, Coughlin, D, Kirk, S. The role of google scholar in evidence reviews and its applicability to grey literature searching. PLoS one 2015; 10: e0138237.
26Wells, GA, Shea, B, O'Connell, D, Peterson, JEA, Welch, V, Losos, M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Assessing the Quality of Nonrandomised Studies in Meta-Analyses. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2000.
27Sterne, JA, Sutton, AJ, Ioannidis, JP, Terrin, N, Jones, DR, Lau, J, et al. Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2011; 343: d4002.
28Lau, J, Ioannidis, JPA, Terrin, N, Schmid, CH, Olkin, I. The case of the misleading funnel plot. BMJ 2006; 333: 597–600.
29Andreazza, AC, Cassini, C, Rosa, AR, Leite, MC, de Almeida, LM, Nardin, P, et al. Serum S100B and antioxidant enzymes in bipolar patients. J Psychiatry Res 2007; 41: 523–9.
30Asdemir, A, Turan, T, Uysal, C, Kilic, E. A potential biomarker for bipolar I disorder: serum arginine vasopressin levels. Anatolian J Psychiatry 2017; 18: 195–202.
31Aydemir, O, Cubukcuoglu, Z, Erdin, S, Tas, C, Onur, E, Berk, M. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2014; 36: 293–7.
32Bai, YM, Su, TP, Tsai, SJ, Wen-Fei, C, Li, CT, Pei-Chi, T, et al. Comparison of inflammatory cytokine levels among type I/type II and manic/hypomanic/euthymic/depressive states of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2014; 166: 187–92.
33Barbosa, IG, Huguet, RB, Mendonca, VA, Sousa, LP, Neves, FS, Bauer, ME, et al. Increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor I in patients with bipolar disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2011; 261: 139–43.
34Barbosa, IG, Morato, IB, Huguet, RB, Rocha, FL, Machado-Vieira, R, Teixeira, AL. Decreased plasma neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder patients in mania. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2014; 36: 340–3.
35Barbosa, IG, Rocha, NP, Huguet, RB, Ferreira, RA, Salgado, JV, Carvalho, LA, et al. Executive dysfunction in euthymic bipolar disorder patients and its association with plasma biomarkers. J Affect Disord 2012; 137: 151–5.
36Barbosa, IG, Rocha, NP, Miranda, AS, Huguet, RB, Bauer, ME, Reis, HJ, et al. Increased BDNF levels in long-term bipolar disorder patients. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2013; 35: 67–9.
37Cetin, T, Guloksuz, S, Cetin, EA, Gazioglu, SB, Deniz, G, Oral, ET, et al. Plasma concentrations of soluble cytokine receptors in euthymic bipolar patients with and without subsyndromal symptoms. BMC Psychiatry 2012; 12: 158.
38Cunha, AB, Frey, BN, Andreazza, AC, Goi, JD, Rosa, AR, Goncalves, CA, et al. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor is decreased in bipolar disorder during depressive and manic episodes. Neurosci Lett 2006; 398: 215–9.
39de Oliveira, GS, Cereser, KM, Fernandes, BS, Kauer-Sant'Anna, M, Fries, GR, Stertz, L, et al. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor in medicated and drug-free bipolar patients. J Psychiatr Res 2009; 43: 1171–4.
40Dell'Osso, L, Bianchi, C, Del Debbio, A, Roncaglia, I, Veltri, A, Carlini, M, et al. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar and unipolar depression. Off J Italian Soc Psychopathol 2010; 16: 138–43.
41Dias, VV, Brissos, S, Frey, BN, Andreazza, AC, Cardoso, C, Kapczinski, F. Cognitive function and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2009; 11: 663–71.
42do Prado, CH, Rizzo, LB, Wieck, A, Lopes, RP, Teixeira, AL, Grassi-Oliveira, R, et al. Reduced regulatory T cells are associated with higher levels of Th1/TH17 cytokines and activated MAPK in type 1 bipolar disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013; 38: 667–76.
43Drexhage, RC, Hoogenboezem, TH, Versnel, MA, Berghout, A, Nolen, WA, Drexhage, HA. The activation of monocyte and T cell networks in patients with bipolar disorder. Brain Behav Immunity 2011; 25: 1206–13.
44Fernandes, BS, Gama, CS, Kauer-Sant'Anna, M, Lobato, MI, Belmonte-de-Abreu, P, Kapczinski, F. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar and unipolar depression: a potential adjunctive tool for differential diagnosis. J Psychiatr Res 2009; 43: 1200–4.
45Fiedorowicz, JG, Prossin, AR, Johnson, CP, Christensen, GE, Magnotta, VA, Wemmie, JA. Peripheral inflammation during abnormal mood states in bipolar I disorder. J Affect Disord 2015; 187: 172–8.
46Gergerlioglu, HS, Savas, HA, Bulbul, F, Selek, S, Uz, E, Yumru, M. Changes in nitric oxide level and superoxide dismutase activity during antimanic treatment. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007; 31: 697–702.
47Guloksuz, S, Cetin, EA, Cetin, T, Deniz, G, Oral, ET, Nutt, DJ. Cytokine levels in euthymic bipolar patients. J Affect Disord 2010; 126: 458–62.
48Hope, S, Dieset, I, Agartz, I, Steen, NE, Ueland, T, Melle, I, et al. Affective symptoms are associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation in bipolar disorders but not in schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res 2011; 45: 1608–16.
49Huang, TL, Lin, FC. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar mania. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2007; 31: 370–2.
50Jacoby, AS, Munkholm, K, Vinberg, M, Pedersen, BK, Kessing, LV. Cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and C-reactive protein in bipolar I disorder - results from a prospective study. J Affect Disord 2016; 197: 167–74.
51Kapczinski, F, Dal-Pizzol, F, Teixeira, AL, Magalhaes, PV, Kauer-Sant'Anna, M, Klamt, F, et al. Peripheral biomarkers and illness activity in bipolar disorder. J Psychiatr Res 2011; 45: 156–61.
52Karamustafalioglu, N, Genc, A, Kalelioglu, T, Tasdemir, A, Umut, G, Incir, S, et al. Plasma BDNFs level initially and post treatment in acute mania: comparison between ECT and atypical antipsychotic treatment and healthy controls. J Psychopharmacol 2015; 29: 898–902.
53Kenna, HA, Reynolds-May, M, Stepanenko, A, Ketter, TA, Hallmayer, J, Rasgon, NL. Blood levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in women with bipolar disorder and healthy control women. J Affect Disord 2014; 156: 214–8.
54Kim, YK, Jung, HG, Myint, AM, Kim, H, Park, SH. Imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2007; 104: 91–5.
55Kim, YK, Myint, AM, Lee, BH, Han, CS, Lee, SW, Leonard, BE, et al. T-helper types 1, 2, and 3 cytokine interactions in symptomatic manic patients. Psychiatry Res 2004; 129: 267–72.
56Kim, YK, Suh, IB, Kim, H, Han, CS, Lim, CS, Choi, SH, et al. The plasma levels of interleukin-12 in schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar mania: effects of psychotropic drugs. Mol Psychiatry 2002; 7: 1107–14.
57Legros, S, Mendlewicz, J, Wybran, J. Immunoglobulins, autoantibodies and other serum protein fractions in psychiatric disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 1985; 235: 9–11.
58Li, Z, Zhang, C, Fan, J, Yuan, C, Huang, J, Chen, J, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and bipolar disorder in patients in their first depressive episode: 3-year prospective longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry 2014; 205: 29–35.
59Lin, CC, Lee, CT, Lo, YT, Huang, TL. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and mRNA levels in patients with bipolar mania - a preliminary study. Biomed J 2016; 39: 272–6.
60Liu, HC, Yang, YY, Chou, YM, Chen, KP, Shen, WW, Leu, SJ. Immunologic variables in acute mania of bipolar disorder. J Neuroimmunol 2004; 150: 116–22.
61Loch, AA, Zanetti, MV, de Sousa, RT, Chaim, TM, Serpa, MH, Gattaz, WF, et al. Elevated neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin 4/5 levels in unmedicated bipolar depression and the effects of lithium. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2015; 56: 243–6.
62Lotrich, FE, Butters, MA, Aizenstein, H, Marron, MM, Reynolds, CF 3rd, Gildengers, AG. The relationship between interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and cognitive function in older adults with bipolar disorder. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2014; 29: 635–44.
63Machado-Vieira, R, Dietrich, MO, Leke, R, Cereser, VH, Zanatto, V, Kapczinski, F, et al. Decreased plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in unmedicated bipolar patients during manic episode. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 61: 142–4.
64Mackin, P, Gallagher, P, Watson, S, Young, AH, Ferrier, IN. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor following treatment with mifepristone in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2007; 41: 321–6.
65Munkholm, K, Pedersen, BK, Kessing, LV, Vinberg, M. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2014; 47: 199–211.
66O'Brien, SM, Scully, P, Scott, LV, Dinan, TG. Cytokine profiles in bipolar affective disorder: focus on acutely ill patients. J Affect Disord 2006; 90: 263–7.
67Ortiz-Dominguez, A, Hernandez, ME, Berlanga, C, Gutierrez-Mora, D, Moreno, J, Heinze, G, et al. Immune variations in bipolar disorder: phasic differences. Bipolar Disord 2007; 9: 596–602.
68Panizzutti, B, Gubert, C, Schuh, AL, Ferrari, P, Bristot, G, Fries, GR, et al. Increased serum levels of eotaxin/CCL11 in late-stage patients with bipolar disorder: an accelerated aging biomarker? J Affect Disord 2015; 182: 64–9.
69Rabie, MA, Mohsen, M, Ibrahim, M, El-Sawy Mahmoud, R. Serum level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) among patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2014; 162: 67–72.
70Rosa, AR, Singh, N, Whitaker, E, de Brito, M, Lewis, AM, Vieta, E, et al. Altered plasma glutathione levels in bipolar disorder indicates higher oxidative stress; a possible risk factor for illness onset despite normal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Psychol Med 2014; 44: 2409–18.
71Selek, S, Savas, HA, Gergerlioglu, HS, Bulbul, F, Uz, E, Yumru, M. The course of nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase during treatment of bipolar depressive episode. J Affect Disord 2008; 107: 89–94.
72Su, SC, Sun, MT, Wen, MJ, Lin, CJ, Chen, YC, Hung, YJ. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, adiponectin, and proinflammatory markers in various subtypes of depression in young men. Int J Psychiatry Med 2011; 42: 211–26.
73Suwalska, A, Sobieska, M, Rybakowski, JK. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in euthymic bipolar patients on prophylactic lithium therapy. Neuropsychobiology 2010; 62: 229–34.
74Tramontina, JF, Andreazza, AC, Kauer-Sant'anna, M, Stertz, L, Goi, J, Chiarani, F, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels before and after treatment for acute mania. Neurosci Lett 2009; 452: 111–3.
75Tsai, SY, Chen, KP, Yang, YY, Chen, CC, Lee, JC, Singh, VK, et al. Activation of indices of cell-mediated immunity in bipolar mania. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45: 989–94.
76Tsai, SY, Chung, KH, Wu, JY, Kuo, CJ, Lee, HC, Huang, SH. Inflammatory markers and their relationships with leptin and insulin from acute mania to full remission in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2012; 136: 110–6.
77Tsai, SY, Yang, YY, Kuo, CJ, Chen, CC, Leu, SJ. Effects of symptomatic severity on elevation of plasma soluble interleukin-2 receptor in bipolar mania. J Affect Disord 2001; 64: 185–93.
78Tunca, Z, Ozerdem, A, Ceylan, D, Yalcin, Y, Can, G, Resmi, H, et al. Alterations in BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in bipolar disorder: the role of lithium. J Affect Disord 2014; 166: 193–200.
79Uyanik, V, Tuglu, C, Gorgulu, Y, Kunduracilar, H, Uyanik, MS. Assessment of cytokine levels and hs-CRP in bipolar I disorder before and after treatment. Psychiatry Res 2015; 228: 386–92.
80Versace, A, Andreazza, AC, Young, LT, Fournier, JC, Almeida, JR, Stiffler, RS, et al. Elevated serum measures of lipid peroxidation and abnormal prefrontal white matter in euthymic bipolar adults: toward peripheral biomarkers of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2014; 19: 200–8.
81Wadee, AA, Kuschke, RH, Wood, LA, Berk, M, Ichim, L, Maes, M. Serological observations in patients suffering from acute manic episodes. Human psychopharmacology 2002; 17: 175–9.
82Yanik, M, Vural, H, Tutkun, H, Zoroglu, SS, Savas, HA, Herken, H, et al. The role of the arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the pathogenesis of bipolar affective disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004; 254: 43–7.
83Breunis, MN, Kupka, RW, Nolen, WA, Suppes, T, Denicoff, KD, Leverich, GS, et al. High numbers of circulating activated T cells and raised levels of serum IL-2 receptor in bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 53: 157–65.
84Brietzke, E, Stertz, L, Fernandes, BS, Kauer-Sant'anna, M, Mascarenhas, M, Escosteguy Vargas, A, et al. Comparison of cytokine levels in depressed, manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 2009; 116: 214–7.
85De Berardis, D, Conti, CM, Campanella, D, Carano, A, Scali, M, Valchera, A, et al. Evaluation of C-reactive protein and total serum cholesterol in adult patients with bipolar disorder. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2008; 21: 319–24.
86Kauer-Sant'Anna, M, Kapczinski, F, Andreazza, AC, Bond, DJ, Lam, RW, Young, LT, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and inflammatory markers in patients with early- v. late-stage bipolar disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2009; 12: 447–58.
87Kunz, M, Ceresér, KM, Goi, PD, Fries, GR, Teixeira, AL, Fernandes, BS, et al. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory balance. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2011; 33: 268–74.
88Monteleone, P, Serritella, C, Martiadis, V, Maj, M. Decreased levels of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in both depressed and euthymic patients with unipolar depression and in euthymic patients with bipolar I and II disorders. Bipolar Disord 2008; 10: 95–100.
89Walz, JC, Magalhaes, PV, Giglio, LM, Cunha, AB, Stertz, L, Fries, GR, et al. Increased serum neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder. J Psychiatr Res 2009; 43: 721–3.
90Yatham, LN, Kapczinski, F, Andreazza, AC, Trevor Young, L, Lam, RW, Kauer-Sant'anna, M. Accelerated age-related decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in bipolar disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2009; 12: 137–9.
91Sen, S, Duman, R, Sanacora, G. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, depression, and antidepressant medications: meta-analyses and implications. Biol Psychiatry. 2008; 64: 527–32.
92Rybakowski, JK. Response to lithium in bipolar disorder: clinical and genetic findings. ACS Chem Neurosci 2014; 5: 413–21.
93de Sousa, RT, Zarate, CA Jr, Zanetti, MV, Costa, AC, Talib, LL, Gattaz, WF, et al. Oxidative stress in early stage bipolar disorder and the association with response to lithium. J Psychiatr Res 2014; 50: 36–41.
94Kato, TA, Monji, A, Mizoguchi, Y, Hashioka, S, Horikawa, H, Seki, Y, et al. Anti-Inflammatory properties of antipsychotics via microglia modulations: are antipsychotics a ‘fire extinguisher’ in the brain of schizophrenia? Mini Rev Med Chem 2011; 11: 565–74.
95Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988.
96Fernandes, BS, Steiner, J, Berk, M, Molendijk, ML, Gonzalez-Pinto, A, Turck, CW, et al. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenia and the role of antipsychotics: meta-analysis and implications. Mol Psychiatry 2015; 20: 1108–19.
97Molendijk, ML, Spinhoven, P, Polak, M, Bus, BA, Penninx, BW, Elzinga, BM. Serum BDNF concentrations as peripheral manifestations of depression: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analyses on 179 associations (N=9484). Mol Psychiatry 2014; 19: 791–800.
98Maes, M. A review on the acute phase response in major depression. Rev Neurosci 1993; 4: 407–16.
99Hodes, GE, Menard, C, Russo, SJ. Integrating Interleukin-6 into depression diagnosis and treatment. Neurobiol Stress 2016; 4: 15–22.
100Dowlati, Y, Herrmann, N, Swardfager, W, Liu, H, Sham, L, Reim, EK, et al. A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 67: 446–57.
101Haapakoski, R, Mathieu, J, Ebmeier, KP, Alenius, H, Kivimaki, M. Cumulative meta-analysis of interleukins 6 and 1beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein in patients with major depressive disorder. Brain Behav Immunity 2015; 49: 206–15.
102Berk, M, Kapczinski, F, Andreazza, AC, Dean, OM, Giorlando, F, Maes, M, et al. Pathways underlying neuroprogression in bipolar disorder: focus on inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2011; 35: 804–17.
103Doganavsargil-Baysal, O, Cinemre, B, Aksoy, UM, Akbas, H, Metin, O, Fettahoglu, C, et al. Levels of TNF-alpha, soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR1, sTNFR2), and cognition in bipolar disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol 2013; 28: 160–7.
104Boll, KM, Noto, C, Bonifacio, KL, Bortolasci, CC, Gadelha, A, Bressan, RA, et al. Oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers in chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2017; 253: 43–8.
105Ng, F, Berk, M, Dean, O, Bush, AI. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2008; 11: 851–76.
106Baek, D, Park, Y. Association between erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with and without depression. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2013; 89: 291–6.
107Spanemberg, L, Caldieraro, MA, Vares, EA, Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, B, Kauer-Sant'Anna, M, Kawamoto, SY, et al. Biological differences between melancholic and nonmelancholic depression subtyped by the CORE measure. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014; 10: 1523–31.
108Maletic, V, Raison, C. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder. Front Psychiatry 2014; 5: 98.
109Haack, M, Hinze-Selch, D, Fenzel, T, Kraus, T, Kuhn, M, Schuld, A, et al. Plasma levels of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors in psychiatric patients upon hospital admission: effects of confounding factors and diagnosis. J Psychiatr Res 1999; 33: 407–18.
110Chae, CU, Lee, RT, Rifai, N, Ridker, PM. Blood pressure and inflammation in apparently healthy men. Hypertension 2001; 38: 399–403.
111Pischon, T, Hankinson, SE, Hotamisligil, GS, Rifai, N, Rimm, EB. Leisure-time physical activity and reduced plasma levels of obesity-related inflammatory markers. Obes Res 2003; 11: 1055–64.
112Kapczinski, F, Simões Fernandes, B, Kauer-Sant'Anna, M, Gama, CS, Yatham, LN, Berk, M. The concept of staging in bipolar disorder: the role of BDNF and TNF-alpha as biomarkers. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 2009; 21: 272–4.
113Sigitova, E, Fisar, Z, Hroudova, J, Cikankova, T, Raboch, J. Biological hypotheses and biomarkers of bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2017; 71: 77–103.
114McIntyre, RS, Soczynska, JK, Cha, DS, Woldeyohannes, HO, Dale, RS, Alsuwaidan, MT, et al. The prevalence and illness characteristics of DSM-5-defined ‘mixed feature specifier’ in adults with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder: results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project. J Affect Disord 2015; 172: 259–64.
115Miller, S, Suppes, T, Mintz, J, Hellemann, G, Frye, MA, McElroy, SL, et al. Mixed depression in bipolar disorder: prevalence rate and clinical correlates during naturalistic follow-up in the Stanley Bipolar Network. Am J Psychiatry 2016; 173: 1015–23.
116Carvalho, AF, Kohler, CA, Fernandes, BS, Quevedo, J, Miskowiak, KW, Brunoni, AR, et al. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder. Psychol Med 2016; 46: 2287–97.
117Hayes, JF, Khandaker, GM, Anderson, J, Mackay, D, Zammit, S, Lewis, G, et al. Childhood interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and atopic disorders as risk factors for hypomanic symptoms in young adulthood: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Psychol Med 2017; 47: 23–33.