Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 20: Cognitive function in a catchment-area-based population of patients with schizophrenia

  • C. Kelly (a1), V. Sharkey (a2), G. Morrison (a2), J. Allardyce (a2) and R. G. McCreadie (a2)...
Extract
Background

Cognitive deficits are a core aspect of schizophrenia but there has been no study of cognitive function in a catchment-area-based population of patients with schizophrenia.

Aims

To assess cognitive function in a population of patients with schizophrenia, and relate it to community functioning.

Method

All patients with schizophrenia in Nithsdale, south-west Scotland, were identified (n=182). Measures of assessment were: National Adult Reading Test (NART), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), Executive Interview (EXIT), FAS Verbal Fluency and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS).

Results

We assessed 138 patients, mean age 48 years (standard deviation (s.d.) 15). Only 14% were in-patients. The mean premorbid IQ as assessed by NART was 98 (s.d. 14); 15% of patients had significant global cognitive impairment (MMSE); 81% had impaired memory (RBMT); 25% had executive dyscontrol (EXIT); and 49% had impaired verbal fluency (FAS). Scores on the functional impairment sub-scale of HoNOS correlated with all measures of cognitive impairment.

Conclusions

Cognitive dysfunction is pervasive in a community-based population of patients with schizophrenia.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 20
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 20
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 20
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Professor R. G. McCreadie, Director of Clinical Research, Crichton Royal Hospital, Dumfries DG1 4TG, Scotland. Tel: 01387 244000; fax: 01387 257735; e-mail: rgmccreadie_crh@compuserve.com
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Berg, A. (1948) A simple objective test for measuring flexibility in thinking. Journal of General Psychology, 39, 1522.
Crawford, J. R., Besson, J. A. O., Bremner, M., et al (1992) Estimation of premorbid intelligence in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 6974.
Crawford, J. R., Obonsawin, M. C. & Bremner, M. (1993) Frontal lobe impairment in schizophrenia: relationship to intellectual functioning. Psychological Medicine, 23, 787790.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. (1975) “Mini-mental State”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Frith, C. D., Leary, J., Cahill, C., et al (1991) IV. Performance on psychological tests: demographic and clinical correlates of the results of these tests. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159 (suppl. 13), 2629.
Goldberg, T. E., Weinberger, D. R., Berman, K. F., et al (1987) Further evidence for dementia of prefrontal type in schizophrenia? A controlled study of teaching the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 10081014.
Goldberg, T. E., Greenberg, R. D., Griffin, S. J., et al (1993) The effect of clozapine on cognition and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 4348.
Green, M. F. (1996) What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 321330.
Harvey, P. D., White, L., Parrella, M., et al (1995) The longitudinal stability of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Mini-Mental State Scores atone- and two-year follow-ups in geriatric in-patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 630633.
Harvey, P. D., Silverman, J. M., Mohs, R. C., et al (1999) Cognitive decline in late-life schizophrenia: a longitudinal study of geriatric chronically hospitalised patients. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 3240.
Hyde, T. M., Nawroz, S., Goldberg, T. E., et al (1994) Is there cognitive decline in schizophrenia? A cross-sectional study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 494500.
Kelly, C. & McCreadie, R. G. (1999) Smoking habits, current symptoms, and premorbid characteristics of schizophrenic patients in Nithsdale, Scotland. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 17511757.
Kelly, C. & McCreadie, R. G. MacEwan, T., et al (1998) Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 17: Fifteen year review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 513517.
Liddle, P. F. & Crow, T. J. (1984) Age disorientation in chronic schizophrenia is associated with global intellectual impairment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 193199.
McCreadie, R. G. (1982) The Nithsdale Schizophrenia Survey: I. Psychiatric and social handicaps. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 582586.
McCreadie, R. G. Leese, M., Tilak-Singh, D., et al (1997) Nithsdale, Nunhead and Norwood: similarities and differences in prevalence of schizophrenia and utilisation of services in rural and urban areas. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 3136.
McGuffin, P., Farmer, A. E. & Harvey, I. (1991) A polydiagnostic application of operational criteria in studies of psychotic illness: development and reliability of the OPCRIT system. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 764770.
McKenna, P. J., Tamlyn, D., Lund, C. E., et al (1990) Amnesic syndrome in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 20, 967972.
Nelson, H. E. (1982) National Adult Reading Test. Test Manual. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
O'Carroll, R. E., Russell, H. H., Lawrie, S. M., et al (1999) Errorless learning and the cognitive rehabilitation of memory-impaired schizophrenic patients. Psychological Medicine, 29, 105112.
Owens, D. G. C. & Johnstone, E. C. (1980) The disabilities of chronic schizophrenia – their nature and the factors contributing to their development. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 384395.
Parker, D. M. & Crawford, J. R. (1992) Assessment of frontal lobe dysfunction. In Handbook of Neuropsychological Assessment (ed. Crawford, J. R., McKinlay, W. & Parker, D. M.), pp. 267291. Hove: Erlbaum and Associates.
Royall, D. R., Mahurin, R. K. & Gray, K. F. (1992) Bedside assessment of executive cognitive impairment. The Executive Interview. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 40, 12211226.
Russell, A. J., Munro, J. C., Jones, P. B., et al (1997) Schizophrenia and the myth of intellectual decline. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 635639.
Saykin, A. J., Gur, R. C., Mozley, P. D., et al (1991) Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia: selective impairment in memory and learning. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 618624.
Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group (1987) Scottish first episode schizophrenia study. III. Cognitive performance. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 338340.
Scully, P. J., Coakley, G., Kinsella, A., et al (1997) Executive (frontal) dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: apparent gender differences in ‘static’ v. ‘progressive’ profiles. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 154158.
Stein, G. S. (1999) Usefulness of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 375377.
Wechsler, D. (1981) WAIS–R Manual. New York, NY: Psychological Corporation.
Wilson, B. A., Cockburn, J. M., Baddely, A. D., et al (1989) The development and validation of a test battery for detecting and monitoring everyday memory problems. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 855870.
Wing, J. K., Beevor, A. S., Curtis, R. H., et al (1998) Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Research and development. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 1118.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 20: Cognitive function in a catchment-area-based population of patients with schizophrenia

  • C. Kelly (a1), V. Sharkey (a2), G. Morrison (a2), J. Allardyce (a2) and R. G. McCreadie (a2)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *