Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 23: movement disorders: 20-year review

  • Jennifer Halliday (a1), Susan Farrington (a1), Shiona Macdonald (a1), Tom MacEwan (a1), Val Sharkey (a1) and Robin McCreadie (a1)...

Abstract

Background

In the past 10 years the new atypical antipsychotic drugs have stimulated further interest in the pharmacological management of schizophrenia. The risk of movement disorders has been reported to be less with these new agents.

Aims

To examine the current prevalence of movement disorders among all people with schizophrenia in a discrete geographical area, to compare the prevalence in patients receiving and not receiving atypical antipsychotic drugs; and to compare current prevalence with prevalence over the past 20 years.

Method

In Nithsdale, south-west Scotland, in 1999/2000, we replicated previous studies by using the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale, Simpson-Angus scale and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale to measure tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism and akathisia, respectively. Mental state was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

Results

In 136 patients the prevalence of probable tardive dyskinesia was 43%, of parkinsonism 35% and of akathisia 15%. Parkinsonism was present as often in those receiving atypicals as in those receiving standard oral antipsychotics. The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia has doubled over 20 years.

Conclusions

Movement disorders remain significant problems for patients despite the introduction of atypical antipsychotic drugs.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 23: movement disorders
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 23: movement disorders
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 23: movement disorders
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Dr Jennifer Halliday, Department of Clinical Research, Crichton Royal Hospital, Dumfries DG1 4TG, UK. Tel: 01387 244000; fax: 01387 257735; e-mail: mikejenq@tinyworld.co.uk

References

Hide All
Baldessarini, R. J. (1980) Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 6th edn (eds Gilman, A.G., Goodman, L. S. & Gilman, A.), p. 397. New York: Macmillan.
Barnes, T. R. E. (1989) A rating scale for drug-induced akathisia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 672676.
Bergen, J. A., Eyland, E. A., Campbell, J. A., et al (1989) The course of tardive dyskinesia in patients on long term neuroleptics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 523528.
Casey, D. E. (1995) Neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes and tardive dyskinesia. In Schizophrenia (eds Hirsch, S. R. & R.Weinberger, D.), pp. 546565. Oxford: Blackwell.
Fenton, W. S. (2000) Prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61 (suppl. 4), 1014.
Geddes, J., Freemantle, N., Harrison, P., et al (2000) Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic overview and meta-regression analysis. BMJ, 321, 13711376.
Kane, J. M., Jeste, D. V., Barnes, T. R. E., et al (1992) Tardive Dyskinesia: A Task Force Report of the American Psychiatric Association. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Kay, S., Fishbein, A. & Opler, L. (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261275.
Kelly, C., McCreadie, R. G., MacEwan, T., et al (1998) Nithsdale schizophrenia surveys, 17: Fifteen year review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 513517.
Kelly, C., & McCreadie, R. G. (1999) Smoking habits, current symptoms, and premorbid characteristics of schizophrenic patients in Nithsdale, Scotland. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 17511757.
Leung, A. & Chue, P. (2000) Sex differences in schizophrenia, a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 101 (suppl. 401), 338.
Liddle, P. F., Barnes, T. R. E., Speller, J., et al (1993) Negative symptoms as a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 776780.
McCreadie, R. G. (1982) The Nithsdale schizophrenia survey. I: Psychiatric and social handicaps. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 582586.
McCreadie, R. G., Barron, E. T. & Winslow, G. S. (1982) The Nithsdale schizophrenia survey. II. Abnormal movements. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 587590.
McCreadie, R. G., Robertson, L. J. & Wiles, D. H. (1992) The Nithsdale schizophrenia surveys. IX: Akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia and plasma neuroleptic levels. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 793799.
McGuffin, P., Farmer, A. E. & Harvey, I. (1991) A polydiagnostic application of operational criteria in studies of psychotic illness: development and reliability of the OPCRIT system. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 764770.
Modestin, J., Stephan, P. L., Erni, T., et al (2000) Prevalence of extrapyramidal syndromes in psychiatric inpatients and the relationship of clozapine treatment to tardive dyskinesia. Schizophrenia Research, 42, 223230.
Schooler, N. R. & Kane, J. M. (1982) Research diagnoses for tardive dyskinesia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 486487.
Simpson, G. M. & Angus, J. W. (1970) A rating scale for extrapyramidal side effects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 212, 1119.
US Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1976) Abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS). In ECDEU Assessment Manual (ed. Guy, W). Rockville, MD: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
van Harten, P. N., Matroos, G. E., Hoek, H. W., et al (1996) The prevalence of tardive dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism and akathisia. The Curacao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study I. Schizophrenia Research, 19, 195203.
van Harten, P. N., Hoek, H. W., Matroos, G. E., et al (1998) Intermittent neuroleptic treatment and risk for tardive dyskinesia: Curacao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study III. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 565567.
Waldron, G., Chalmers, J., Bone, A., et al (1995) Health and Lifestyle in Dumfries and Galloway in 1995. Dumfries: Dumfries and Galloway Health Board.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva: WHO.
Yassa, R. & Jeste, D. V. (1992) Gender differences in tardive dyskinesia: a critical review of the literature. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18, 701715.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 23: movement disorders: 20-year review

  • Jennifer Halliday (a1), Susan Farrington (a1), Shiona Macdonald (a1), Tom MacEwan (a1), Val Sharkey (a1) and Robin McCreadie (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.