Harrison-Woolrych, M, Skegg, K, Ashton, J, Herbison, P, Skegg, DCG. Nocturnal enuresis in patients taking clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine: comparative cohort study. Br J Psychiatry
2011; 199: 140–4.
Warner, JP, Harvey, CA, Barnes, TRE. Clozapine and urinary incontinence. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
1994; 9: 207–9.
Lin, CC, Bai, YM, Chen, JY, Lin, CY, Lan, TH. A retrospective study of clozapine and urinary incontinence in Chinese in-patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand
1999; 100: 158–61.
Yusufi, BZ, Mukherjee, S, Flanagan, RJ, Paton, C, Dunn, G, Page, E, et al. Prevalence and nature of side effects during clozapine maintenance treatment and the relationship with clozapine dose and plasma concentration. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2007; 22: 238–43.
Young, CR, Bowers, MB Jr, Mazure, CM. Management of the adverse effects of clozapine. Schizophr Bull
1998; 24: 381–90.
Bär, K-J, Berger, S, Metzner, M, Boettger, MK, Schulz, S, Ramachandraiah, CT, et al. Autonomic dysfunction in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients suffering from schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull
2010; 36: 1050–8.
Vera, PL, Miranda-Souse, A, Nadelhaft, I. Effects of two atypical neuroleptics, olanzapine and risperidone, on the function of the urinary bladder and the external urethral sphincter in anaesthetized rats. BMC Pharmacology
2001; 1: 4.
La Torre, D, Isgro, S, Muscatello, MRA, Magno, C, Melloni, D, Meduri, M. Urinary incontinence in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: urodynamic findings and therapeutic perspectives. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract
2005; 9: 116–9.
Kho, KH, Nielsen, O. Clozapine-induced nocturnal enuresis: diagnostic and treatment issues. Psychiatr Bull
2001; 25: 232–3.
Fuller, MA, Borovicka, MC, Jaskiw, GE, Simon, MR, Kwon, K, Konicki, PE. Clozapine-induced urinary incontinence: incidence and treatment with ephedrine. J Clin Psychiatry
1996; 57: 514–8.
Frankenburg, FR, Kando, JC, Centorrino, F, Gilbert, JM. Bladder dysfunction associated with clozapine therapy. J Clin Psychiatry
1996; 57: 39–40.
Lee, MJ, Kim, CE. Use of aripiprazole in clozapine induced enuresis: report of two cases. J Korean Med Sci
2010; 25: 333–5.
Saddichha, S, Kumar, M. Antipsychotic-induced urinary dysfunction: anticholinergic effect or otherwise?
BMJ Case Rep
Mendhekar, DN, Andrade, C. Risperidone-related reversal of primary enuresis: an unusual case report. World J Biol Psychiatry
2010; 11: 514–5.
Shriqui, CL. Treatment of clozapine-induced enuresis with desmopressin. Schizophr Res
1991; 9: 251.
Poyurovsky, M, Modai, I, Weizman, A. Trihexyphenidyl as a possible therapeutic option in clozapine-induced nocturnal enuresis. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
1996; 11: 61–3.
Lurie, SN, Hosmer, C. Oxybutynin and intranasal desmopressin for clozapine-induced urinary incontinence. J Clin Psychiatry
1997; 58: 404.
Aggarwal, A, Garg, A, Jiloha, RC. Trihexyphenidyl (benzhexol) in clozapine-induced nocturnal enuresis and sialorrhea. Indian J Med Sci
2009; 63: 470–1.