American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) . Washington, DC: APA.
Andrews, G., Stewart, G., Allen, R., et al (1990) The genetics of six neurotic disorders: a twin study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 19, 23–29.
Baer, L., Jenike, M. A., Black, D. W., et al (1992) Effect of axis II diagnoses on treatment outcome with clomipramine in 55 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 862–866.
Bejerot, S., Schlette, P., Ekselius, L., et al (1998) Personality disorders and relationship to personality dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98, 243–249.
Black, D. W., Noyes, R., Pfohl, B., et al (1993) Personality disorder in obsessive-compulsive volunteers, well comparison subjects, and their first-degree relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1226–1232.
Black, D. W., & Noyes, R. Jr (1997) Obsessive–compulsive disorder and axis II. International Review of Psychiatry, 9, 111–118.
Cloninger, C. R. (1986) A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states. Psychiatric Developments, 3, 167–226.
Cloninger, C. R.
Svrakic, D. M. & Przybeck, T. R. (1993) A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975–990.
Costa, P. T. Jr & McCrae, R. R. (1992) Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI–R) Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Freud, S. (1953) Character and anal eroticism. In Collected Papers (ed. Strachey, J.), vol. 2, pp. 168–175. London: Hogarth.
Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Rasmussen, S. A., et al (1989) The Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: I. Development, use and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 1006–1011.
Janet, P. (1903) Les Obsessions et al Psychasthénie. Paris: Alcan.
Kringlen, E. (1965) Obsessional neurotics: a long-term follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 709–722.
Lewis, A. (1936) Problems of obsessional illness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 36, 325–336.
Lyons, M. J., Tyrer, P., Gunderson, J., et al (1997) Heuristic models of comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11, 260–269.
Mannuzza, S., Fyer, A. J., Endicott, J., et al (1985) Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. New York, NY: Anxiety Family Study Unit, New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Mannuzza, S., Fyer, A. J., Klein, D. F., et al (1986) Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia – Lifetime Version Modified for the Study of Anxiety Disorders (SADS–LA): rationale and conceptual development. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20, 317–325.
McHugh, P. R. & Slavney, P. R. (1986) The Perspectives of Psychiatry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Nestadt, G., Romanoski, A. J., Brown, C. H., et al (1991) DSM–IV compulsive personality disorder: an epidemiological survey. Psychological Medicine, 21, 461–471.
Nestadt, G., Samuels, J., Bienvenu, O. J., et al (2000) A family study of obsessive compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 358–363.
Pfohl, B., Blum, N., Zimmerman, M., et al (1989) Structured Interview for DSM–IIIR Personality SIDP–R. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa College of Medicine.
Pfohl, B., Black, D. W., Noyes, R., et al (1990) A test of the tridimensional personality theory: association with diagnosis and platelet imipramine binding in obsessional-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 28, 41–46.
Pitman, R. K. (1987) Pierre Janet on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 226–232.
Ravizza, L., Barzega, G., Bellino, S., et al (1995) Predictors of drug treatment response in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 56, 368–373.
Reich, J., Noyes, R. Jr., Coryell, W., et al (1986) The effect of state anxiety on personality measurement. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 760–763.
Sandler, J. & Hazari, A. (1960) The obsessional: on the psychological classification of obsessional character traits and symptoms. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 33, 113–122.
Skodol, A. E., Oldham, J. M., Hyler, S. E., et al (1995) Patterns of anxiety and personality disorder comorbidity
Journal of Psychiatric Research, 29, 361–374.
Stanley, M. A., Turner, S. M. & Borden, J. W. (1990) Schizotypal features in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 31, 511–518.
Trull, T. J. & Sher, K. J. (1994) Relationship between the five-factor model of personality and axis I disorders in a non-clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 350–360.