Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Pregnancy loss and psychiatric disorders in young women: an Australian birth cohort study

  • Kaeleen Dingle (a1), Rosa Alati (a1), Alexandra Clavarino (a2), Jake M. Najman (a3) and Gail M. Williams (a4)...

Abstract

Background

Recent evidence has linked induced abortion with later adverse psychiatric outcomes in young women.

Aims

To examine whether abortion or miscarriage are associated with subsequent psychiatric and substance use disorders.

Method

A sample (n=1223) of women from a cohort born between 1981 and 1984 in Australia were assessed at 21 years for psychiatric and substance use disorders and lifetime pregnancy histories.

Results

Young women reporting a pregnancy loss had nearly three times the odds of experiencing a lifetime illicit drug disorder (excluding cannabis): abortion odds ratio (OR)=3.6 (95% CI 2.0–6.7) and miscarriage OR=2.6 (95% CI 1.2–5.4). Abortion was associated with alcohol use disorder (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.5) and 12-month depression (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.1).

Conclusions

These findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that pregnancy loss per se, whether abortion or miscarriage, increases the risk of a range of substance use disorders and affective disorders in young women.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Pregnancy loss and psychiatric disorders in young women: an Australian birth cohort study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Pregnancy loss and psychiatric disorders in young women: an Australian birth cohort study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Pregnancy loss and psychiatric disorders in young women: an Australian birth cohort study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Kaeleen Dingle, Level 2, Public Health Building, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston Road, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia. Email: s4002827@student.uq.edu.au

Footnotes

Hide All

Declaration of interest

None. Funding detailed in Acknowledgements.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1 Cougle, JR, Reardon, DC, Coleman, PK. Depression associated with abortion and childbirth: a long-term analysis of the NLSY cohort. Med Sci Monit 2003; 9: 105–12.
2 Fergusson, DM, Horwood, LJ, Ridder, EM. Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006; 47: 1624.
3 Pedersen, W. Childbirth, abortion and subsequent substance use in young women: a population-based longitudinal study. Addiction 2007; 102: 1971–8.
4 Gilchrist, AC, Hannaford, PC, Frank, P, Kay, CR. Termination of pregnancy and psychiatric morbidity. Br J Psychiatry 1995; 167: 243–8.
5 Major, B, Cozzarelli, C, Cooper, ML, Zubek, J, Richards, C, Wilhite, M, Gramzow, RH. Psychological responses of women after first-trimester abortion. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 777–84.
6 Rees, DI, Sabia, JJ. The relationship between abortion and depression: new evidence from the fragile families and child wellbeing study. Med Sci Monit 2007; 13: CR431–6.
7 Schmiege, S, Russo, NF. Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 2005; 331: 1303–7.
8 Neugebauer, R. Depressive symptoms at two months after miscarriage: interpreting study findings from an epidemiological versus clinical perspective. Depress Anxiety 2003; 17: 152–61.
9 Brockington, I. Postpartum psychiatric disorders. Lancet 2004; 363: 303–10.
10 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA, 1994.
11 Najman, JM, Bor, W, O'Callaghan, M, Williams, GM, Aird, R, Shuttlewood, G. Cohort profile: the Mater-University of Queensland study of pregnancy (MUSP). Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34: 992–7.
12 World Health Organization. Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Version 2.1. WHO, 1992.
13 Andrews, G, Peters, L. The psychometric properties of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1998; 33: 80–8.
14 Bedford, A, Foulds, G. Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory: State of Anxiety and Depression. nferNelson, 1978.
15 Spence, SH, Najman, JM, Bor, W, O'Callaghan, MJ, Williams, GM. Maternal anxiety and depression, poverty and marital relationship factors during early childhood as predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2002; 43: 457–69.
16 Barnes, H, Olson, DH. Parent–adolescent communication and the circumplex model. Child Dev 1985; 56: 438–47.
17 Achenbach, T. Manual for the Young Adult Self-Report and Young Adult Behavior Checklist. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 1997.
18 Achenbach, TM, Howell, CT, McConaughy, SH, Stanger, CP. Six-year predictors of problems in a national sample: III. Transitions to young adult syndromes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995; 34: 658–69.
19 Sorenson, SB, Stein, JA, Siegel, JM, Golding, JM, Burnam, MA. The prevalence of adult sexual assault: the Los Angeles epidemiologic catchment area project. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126: 1154–64.
20 Hogan, JW, Roy, J, Korkontzelou, C. Handling drop-out in longitudinal studies. Stat Med 2004; 23: 1455–97.
21 Jaffee, S, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Belsky, J, Silva, P. Why are children born to teen mothers at risk for adverse outcomes in young adulthood? Results from a 20-year longitudinal study. Dev Psychopathol 2001; 13: 377–97.
22 Klier, CM, Geller, PA, Ritsher, JB. Affective disorders in the aftermath of miscarriage: a comprehensive review. Arch Wom Ment Health 2002; 5: 129–49.
23 Gold, KJ, Dalton, VK, Schwenk, TL, Hayward, RA. What causes pregnancy loss? Preexisting mental illness as an independent risk factor. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2007; 29: 207–13.
24 Martino, SC, Collins, RL, Ellickson, PL, Klein, DJ. Exploring the link between substance use and abortion: the roles of unconventionality and unplanned pregnancy. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2006; 38: 6675.
25 Ramrakha, S, Caspi, A, Dickson, N, Moffitt, TE, Paul, C. Psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviour in young adulthood: cross sectional study in birth cohort. BMJ 2000; 321: 263–6.
26 Fergusson, DM, Boden, JM, Horwood, LJ. Abortion among young women and subsequent life outcomes. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2007; 39: 612.
27 Bradshaw, Z, Slade, P. The effects of induced abortion on emotional experiences and relationships: a critical review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2003; 23: 929–58.
28 Broen, A, Moum, T, Bödtker, AS, Ekeberg, Ö. The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. BMC Med 2005; 3: 1831.
29 Broen, AN, Moum, T, Bödtker, AS, Ekeberg, Ö. Predictors of anxiety and depression following pregnancy termination: a longitudinal five-year follow-up study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2006; 85: 317–23.
30 Reardon, DC, Cougle, JR. Depression and unintended pregnancy in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: a cohort study. BMJ 2002; 324: 151–2.
31 Jones, RK, Kost, K. Underreporting of induced and spontaneous abortion in the United States: an analysis of the 2002 national survey of family growth. Stud Fam Plann 2007; 38: 187–97.
32 de Vaus, DA. Diversity and Change in Australian Families: Statistical Profiles. Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2004.
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Dingle et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Table S1-S5

 PDF (49 KB)
49 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Dingle et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 Unknown (459 bytes)
459 bytes

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Pregnancy loss and psychiatric disorders in young women: an Australian birth cohort study

  • Kaeleen Dingle (a1), Rosa Alati (a1), Alexandra Clavarino (a2), Jake M. Najman (a3) and Gail M. Williams (a4)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *