Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Cindy-Lee Dennis (a1), Kobra Falah-Hassani (a2) and Rahman Shiri (a3)
Abstract
Background

Maternal anxiety negatively influences child outcomes. Reliable estimates have not been established because of varying published prevalence rates.

Aims

To establish summary estimates for the prevalence of maternal anxiety in the antenatal and postnatal periods.

Method

We searched multiple databases including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to identify studies published up to January 2016 with data on the prevalence of antenatal or postnatal anxiety. Data were extracted from published reports and any missing information was requested from investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses.

Results

We reviewed 23 468 abstracts, retrieved 783 articles and included 102 studies incorporating 221 974 women from 34 countries. The prevalence for self-reported anxiety symptoms was 18.2% (95% CI 13.6–22.8) in the first trimester, 19.1% (95% CI 15.9–22.4) in the second trimester and 24.6% (95% CI 21.2–28.0) in the third trimester. The overall prevalence for a clinical diagnosis of any anxiety disorder was 15.2% (95% CI 9.0–21.4) and 4.1% (95% CI 1.9–6.2) for a generalised anxiety disorder. Postnatally, the prevalence for anxiety symptoms overall at 1–24 weeks was 15.0% (95% CI 13.7–16.4). The prevalence for any anxiety disorder over the same period was 9.9% (95% CI 6.1–13.8), and 5.7% (95% CI 2.3–9.2) for a generalised anxiety disorder. Rates were higher in low- to middle-income countries.

Conclusions

Results suggest perinatal anxiety is highly prevalent and merits clinical attention. Research is warranted to develop evidence-based interventions.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Cindy-Lee Dennis, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Suite 130, Toronto, ON M5T 1P8, Canada. Email: cindylee.dennis@utoronto.ca
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Stein, A, Pearson, RM, Goodman, SH, Rapa, E, Rahman, A, McCallum, M, et al. Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Lancet 2014; 384: 1800–19.
2 Howard, LM, Molyneaux, E, Dennis, CL, Rochat, T, Stein, A, Milgrom, J. Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period. Lancet 2014; 384: 1775–88.
3 Garthus-Niegel, S, von Soest, T, Knoph, C, Simonsen, TB, Torgersen, L, Eberhard-Gran, M. The influence of women's preferences and actual mode of delivery on post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a population-based, longitudinal study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014; 14: 191.
4 Falah-Hassani, K, Shiri, R, Dennis, CL. Prevalence and risk factors for comorbid postpartum depressive symptomatology and anxiety. J Affect Disord 2016; 198: 142–7.
5 Hall, WA, Hauck, YL, Carty, EM, Hutton, EK, Fenwick, J, Stoll, K. Childbirth fear, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep deprivation in pregnant women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2009; 38: 567–76.
6 Rubertsson, C, Hellstrom, J, Cross, M, Sydsjo, G. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors. Arch Womens Ment Health 2014; 17: 221–8.
7 George, A, Luz, RF, De Tychey, C, Thilly, N, Spitz, E. Anxiety symptoms and coping strategies in the perinatal period. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013; 13: 233.
8 Micali, N, Simonoff, E, Treasure, J. Pregnancy and post-partum depression and anxiety in a longitudinal general population cohort: the effect of eating disorders and past depression. J Affect Disord 2011; 131: 150–7.
9 Farias, DR, Pinto, TJP, Teofilo, MMA, Vilela, AAF, Vaz, JS, Nardi, AE, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the first trimester of pregnancy and factors associated with current suicide risk. Psychiatry Res 2013; 210: 962–8.
10 Ibanez, G, Charles, MA, Forhan, A, Magnin, G, Thiebaugeorges, O, Kaminski, M, et al. Depression and anxiety in women during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: data from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Early Hum Dev 2012; 88: 643–9.
11 Sanchez, SE, Puente, GC, Atencio, G, Qiu, C, Yanez, D, Gelaye, B, et al. Risk of spontaneous preterm birth in relation to maternal depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms. J Reprod Med 2013; 58: 2533.
12 Berle, JO, Mykletun, A, Daltveit, AK, Rasmussen, S, Holsten, F, Dahl, AA. Neonatal outcomes in offspring of women with anxiety and depression during pregnancy. A linkage study from The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT) and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Arch Womens Ment Health 2005; 8: 181–9.
13 Broekman, BF, Chan, YH, Chong, YS, Kwek, K, Cohen, SS, Haley, CL, et al. The influence of anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy on birth size. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2014; 28: 116–26.
14 Glover, V. Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2014; 28: 2535.
15 Van den Bergh, BR, Mennes, M, Oosterlaan, J, Stevens, V, Stiers, P, Marcoen, A, et al. High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to impulsivity during performance on cognitive tasks in 14- and 15-year-olds. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2005; 29: 259–69.
16 Van den Bergh, BR, Marcoen, A. High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds. Child Dev 2004; 75: 1085–97.
17 O'Connor, TG, Heron, J, Glover, V, ALSPAC Study Team. Antenatal anxiety predicts child behavioral/emotional problems independently of postnatal depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002; 41: 1470–7.
18 Van Batenburg-Eddes, T, Brion, MJ, Henrichs, J, Jaddoe, VW, Hofman, A, Verhulst, FC, et al. Parental depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and attention problems in children: a cross-cohort consistency study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2013; 54: 591600.
19 McLeod, BD, Wood, JJ, Weisz, JR. Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 2007; 27: 155–72.
20 Barker, ED, Jaffee, SR, Uher, R, Maughan, B. The contribution of prenatal and postnatal maternal anxiety and depression to child maladjustment. Depress Anxiety 2011; 28: 696702.
21 Bögels, SM, Brechman-Toussaint, ML. Family issues in child anxiety: attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs. Clin Psychol Rev 2006; 26: 834–56.
22 Williams, SR, Kertz, SJ, Schrock, MD, Woodruff-Borden, J. A sequential analysis of parent-child interactions in anxious and nonanxious families. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2012; 41: 6474.
23 Joussemet, M, Vitaro, F, Barker, ED, Cote, S, Nagin, DS, Zoccolillo, M, et al. Controlling parenting and physical aggression during elementary school. Child Dev 2008; 79: 411–25.
24 Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, Group, P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLOS Med 2009; 6: e1000097.
25 Armijo-Olivo, S, Stiles, CR, Hagen, NA, Biondo, PD, Cummings, GG. Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool: methodological research. J Eval Clin Pract 2012; 18: 12–8.
26 Higgins, J, Green, S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2009 (http://handbook.cochrane.org/).
27 Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 2002; 21: 1539–58.
28 Betts, KS, Williams, GM, Najman, JM, Alati, R. Maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms during pregnancy predict internalizing problems in adolescence. Depress Anxiety 2014; 31: 918.
29 Huizink, AC, Menting, B, Oosterman, M, Verhage, ML, Kunseler, FC, Schuengel, C. The interrelationship between pregnancy-specific anxiety and general anxiety across pregnancy: a longitudinal study. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2014; 35: 92100.
30 Meijer, JL, Bockting, CL, Stolk, RP, Kotov, R, Ormel, J, Burger, H. Associations of life events during pregnancy with longitudinal change in symptoms of antenatal anxiety and depression. Midwifery 2014; 30: 526–31.
31 Makara-Studzinska, M, Morylowska-Topolska, J, Sygit, K, Sygit, M, Gozdziewska, M. Socio-demographical and psychosocial determinants of anxiety symptoms in a population of pregnant women in the regions of central and eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2013; 20: 195202.
32 Figueiredo, B, Conde, A. Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum. Arch Womens Ment Health 2011; 14: 247–55.
33 Goebert, D, Morland, L, Frattarelli, L, Onoye, J, Matsu, C. Mental health during pregnancy: a study comparing Asian, Caucasian and Native Hawaiian women. Matern Child Health J 2007; 11: 249–55.
34 Lee, AM, Lam, SK, Sze Mun Lau, SM, Chong, CS, Chui, HW, Fong, DY. Prevalence, course, and risk factors for antenatal anxiety and depression. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 1102–12.
35 Rondo, PH, Ferreira, RF, Nogueira, F, Ribeiro, MC, Lobert, H, Artes, R. Maternal psychological stress and distress as predictors of low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57: 266–72.
36 Rosenthal, L, Earnshaw, VA, Lewis, TT, Reid, AE, Lewis, JB, Stasko, EC, et al. Changes in experiences with discrimination across pregnancy and postpartum: age differences and consequences for mental health. Am J Public Health 2015; 105: 686–93.
37 Vilela, AA, Pinto, TJ, Rebelo, F, Benaim, C, Lepsch, J, Dias-Silva, CH, et al. Association of prepregnancy dietary patterns and anxiety symptoms from midpregnancy to early postpartum in a prospective cohort of Brazilian women. J Acad Nutr Diet 2015; 115: 1626–35.
38 Khashan, AS, Everard, C, McCowan, LM, Dekker, G, Moss-Morris, R, Baker, PN, et al. Second-trimester maternal distress increases the risk of small for gestational age. Psychol Med 2014; 44: 2799–810.
39 Fadzil, A, Balakrishnan, K, Razali, R, Sidi, H, Malapan, T, Japaraj, RP, et al. Risk factors for depression and anxiety among pregnant women in Hospital Tuanku Bainun, Ipoh, Malaysia. Asia Pac Psychiatry 2013; 5 (suppl 1): 713.
40 Roos, A, Faure, S, Lochner, C, Vythilingum, B, Stein, DJ. Predictors of distress and anxiety during pregnancy. Afr J Psychiatry 2013; 16: 118122.
41 Couto, ER, Couto, E, Vian, B, Gregório, Z, Nomura, ML, Zaccaria, R, et al. Quality of life, depression and anxiety among pregnant women with previous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Sao Paulo Med J 2009; 127: 185–9.
42 van Batenburg-Eddes, T, de Groot, L, Huizink, AC, Steegers, EA, Hofman, A, Jaddoe, VW, et al. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study. Dev Neuropsychol 2009; 34: 476–93.
43 Shi, SX, Tang, YF, Cheng, LN, Su, QF, Qi, K, Yang, YZ. An investigation of the prevalence of anxiety or depression and related risk factors in women during pregnancy and postpartum. Chin Ment Health J 2007; 21: 254–8.
44 Heron, J, O'Connor, TG, Evans, J, Golding, J, Glover, V, Team, AS. The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. J Affect Disord 2004; 80: 6573.
45 Dole, N, Savitz, DA, Hertz-Picciotto, I, Siega-Riz, AM, McMahon, MJ, Buekens, P. Maternal stress and preterm birth. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 157: 1424.
46 Aaron, E, Bonacquisti, A, Geller, PA, Polansky, M. Perinatal depression and anxiety in women with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Womens Health Issues 2015; 25: 579–85.
47 Bjork, MH, Veiby, G, Reiter, SC, Berle, JO, Daltveit, AK, Spigset, O, et al. Depression and anxiety in women with epilepsy during pregnancy and after delivery: a prospective population-based cohort study on frequency, risk factors, medication, and prognosis. Epilepsia 2015; 56: 2839.
48 Cheng, TS, Chen, H, Lee, T, Teoh, OH, Shek, LP, Lee, BW, et al. An independent association of prenatal depression with wheezing and anxiety with rhinitis in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015; 26: 765–71.
49 Dubber, S, Reck, C, Muller, M, Gawlik, S. Postpartum bonding: the role of perinatal depression, anxiety and maternal-fetal bonding during pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health 2015; 18: 187–95.
50 Ibanez, G, Bernard, JY, Rondet, C, Peyre, H, Forhan, A, Kaminski, M, et al. Effects of antenatal maternal depression and anxiety on children's early cognitive development: a prospective cohort study. PLOS One 2015; 10: e0135849.
51 Pazzagli, C, Laghezza, L, Capurso, M, Sommella, C, Lelli, F, Mazzeschi, C. Antecedents and consequences of fear of childbirth in nulliparous and parous women. Infant Ment Health J 2015; 36: 6274.
52 Pisoni, C, Garofoli, F, Tzialla, C, Orcesi, S, Spinillo, A, Politi, P, et al. Complexity of parental prenatal attachment during pregnancy at risk for preterm delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016; 29: 771–6.
53 Ferreira, CR, Orsini, MC, Vieira, CR, do Amarante Paffaro, AM, Silva, RR. Prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depression in the third gestational trimester. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2015; 291: 9991003.
54 Jokic-Begic, N, Zigic, L, Nakic Rados, S. Anxiety and anxiety sensitivity as predictors of fear of childbirth: different patterns for nulliparous and parous women. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2014; 35: 22–8.
55 Tan, PC, Zaidi, SN, Azmi, N, Omar, SZ, Khong, SY. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates. PLoS One 2014; 9: e92036.
56 Verreault, N, Da Costa, D, Marchand, A, Ireland, K, Dritsa, M, Khalife, S. Rates and risk factors associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy and with postpartum onset. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2014; 35: 8491.
57 Bindt, C, Guo, N, Bonle, MT, Appiah-Poku, J, Hinz, R, Barthel, D, et al. No association between antenatal common mental disorders in low-obstetric risk women and adverse birth outcomes in their offspring: results from the CDS study in Ghana and Cote D'Ivoire. PLoS One 2013; 8: e80711.
58 Mohammad, KI, Gamble, J, Creedy, DK. Prevalence and factors associated with the development of antenatal and postnatal depression among Jordanian women. Midwifery 2011; 27: e23845.
59 DiPietro, JA, Costigan, KA, Sipsma, HL. Continuity in self-report measures of maternal anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms from pregnancy through two years postpartum. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2008; 29: 115–24.
60 Keeton, CP, Perry-Jenkins, M, Sayer, AG. Sense of control predicts depressive and anxious symptoms across the transition to parenthood. J Fam Psychol 2008; 22: 212–21.
61 Ross, LE, Gilbert Evans, SE, Sellers, EM, Romach, MK. Measurement issues in postpartum depression part 1: anxiety as a feature of postpartum depression. Arch Womens Ment Health 2003; 6: 51–7.
62 Teixeira, JM, Fisk, NM, Glover, V. Association between maternal anxiety in pregnancy and increased uterine artery resistance index: cohort based study. BMJ 1999; 318: 153–7.
63 Crandon, AJ. Maternal anxiety and obstetric complications. J Psychosom Res 1979; 23: 109–11.
64 Alonso, J, Lepine, JP, Committee, ESMS. Overview of key data from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD). J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68 (suppl 2): 39.
65 Wittchen, HU, Jacobi, F. Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe – a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2005; 15: 357–76.
66 Meades, R, Ayers, S. Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: a systematic review. J Affect Disord 2011; 133: 115.
67 Gavin, NI, Gaynes, BN, Lohr, KN, Meltzer-Brody, S, Gartlehner, G, Swinson, T. Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 106: 1071–83.
68 Bandelow, B, Michaelis, S. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2015; 17: 327–35.
69 Fisher, J, Cabral de Mello, M, Patel, V, Rahman, A, Tran, T, Holton, S, et al. Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ 2012; 90: 139G49G.
70 Kessler, RC, Demler, O, Frank, RG, Olfson, M, Pincus, HA, Walters, EE, et al. Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders, 1990 to 2003. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 2515–23.
71 Wittchen, HU, Jacobi, F, Rehm, J, Gustavsson, A, Svensson, M, Jonsson, B, et al. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21: 655–79.
72 Alonso, J, Angermeyer, MC, Bernert, S, Bruffaerts, R, Brugha, TS, Bryson, H, et al. 12-Month comorbidity patterns and associated factors in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 2004; 109: 2837.
73 Austin, MP, Hadzi-Pavlovic, D, Priest, SR, Reilly, N, Wilhelm, K, Saint, K, et al. Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period: how prevalent are they and can we improve their detection? Arch Womens Ment Health 2010; 13: 395401.
74 Farr, SL, Dietz, PM, O'Hara, MW, Burley, K, Ko, JY. Postpartum anxiety and comorbid depression in a population-based sample of women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2014; 23: 120–8.
75 Rivas-Vazquez, RA, Saffa-Biller, D, Ruiz, I, Blais, MA, Rivas-Vazquez, A. Current issues in anxiety and depression: Comorbid, mixed and subthreshold disorders. Prof Psychol Res Pract 2004; 35: 7483.
76 Emmanuel, J, Simmonds, S, Tyrer, P. Systematic review of the outcome of anxiety and depressive disorders. Br J Psychiatry 1998; 173 (suppl 34): 3541.
77 Fawcett, J. The detection and consequences of anxiety in clinical depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58 (suppl 8): 3540.
78 Siu, AL, US Preventative Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo, K, Grossman, DC, Baumann, LC, Davidson, KW, et al. Screening for depression in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA 2016; 315: 380–7.
79 Matthey, S, Barnett, B, Howie, P, Kavanagh, DJ. Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: whatever happened to anxiety? J Affect Disord 2003; 74: 139–47.
80 Catov, JM, Abatemarco, DJ, Markovic, N, Roberts, JM. Anxiety and optimism associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth. Matern Child Health J 2010; 14: 758–64.
81 Keim, SA, Daniels, JL, Dole, N, Herring, AH, Siega-Riz, AM, Scheidt, PC. A prospective study of maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms in relation to infant cognitive development. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87: 373–80.
82 Austin, MP, Hadzi-Pavlovic, D, Leader, L, Saint, K, Parker, G. Maternal trait anxiety, depression and life event stress in pregnancy: relationships with infant temperament. Early Hum Dev 2005; 81: 183–90.
83 Heindel, JJ, Vandenberg, LN. Developmental origins of health and disease: a paradigm for understanding disease cause and prevention. Curr Opin Pediatr 2015; 27: 248–53.
84 Adewuya, AO, Afolabi, OT. The course of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Nigerian postpartum women. Arch Womens Ment Health 2005; 8: 257–9.
85 Amr, MA, Hussein Balaha, MH. Minor psychiatric morbidity in young Saudi mothers using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010; 20: 680–4.
86 Gonidakis, F, Rabavilas, AD, Varsou, E, Kreatsas, G, Christodoulou, GN. Maternity blues in Athens, Greece: a study during the first 3 days after delivery. J Affect Disord 2007; 99: 107–15.
87 McDonald, SW, Kingston, D, Bayrampour, H, Dolan, SM, Tough, SC. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth. Arch Womens Ment Health 2014; 17: 559–68.
88 Razurel, C, Kaiser, B. The role of satisfaction with social support on the psychological health of primiparous mothers in the perinatal period. Women Health 2015; 55: 167–86.
89 Sutter-Dallay, AL, Giaconne-Marcesche, V, Glatigny-Dallay, E, Verdoux, H. Women with anxiety disorders during pregnancy are at increased risk of intense postnatal depressive symptoms: a prospective survey of the MATQUID cohort. Eur Psychiatry 2004; 19: 459–63.
90 Mahenge, B, Stockl, H, Likindikoki, S, Kaaya, S, Mbwambo, J. The prevalence of mental health morbidity and its associated factors among women attending a prenatal clinic in Tanzania. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2015; 130: 261–5.
91 Taylor, J, Johnson, M. The role of anxiety and other factors in predicting postnatal fatigue: from birth to 6 months. Midwifery 2013; 29: 526–34.
92 Zanardo, V, Gasparetto, S, Giustardi, A, Suppiej, A, Trevisanuto, D, Pascoli, I, et al. Impact of anxiety in the puerperium on breast-feeding outcomes: role of parity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009; 49: 631–4.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Dennis et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 PDF (6.1 MB)
6.1 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 22
Total number of PDF views: 338 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 692 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 18th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Cindy-Lee Dennis (a1), Kobra Falah-Hassani (a2) and Rahman Shiri (a3)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *