Breakey, W. R., Goodell, H., Lorenz, P. C., et al (1974) Hallucinogenic drugs as precipitants of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 4, 255–261.
Brewer, C. (1993) Hair analysis as a tool for monitoring and managing patients on methadone maintenance: a discussion. forensic Science International, 63, 277–283.
Brewin, J., Cantwell, R., Dalkin, T., et al (1997) Incidence of schizophrenia in Nottingham. A comparison of two cohorts, 1978–80 and 1992–94. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 140–144.
Chick, J., Badawy, A. & Borg, S. (1993) Identification of excessive drinking and alcohol problems. Alcohol & Alcoholism (suppl. 2), 121–125.
Cuffel, B. J. (1992) Prevalence estimates of substance abuse in schizophrenia and their correlates. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 589–592.
Cuffel, B. J., Shumway, M., Chouljian, T. L., et al (1994) A longitudinal study of substance use and community violence in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 704–708.
Drake, R. E. & Wallach, M. A. (1989) Substance abuse among the chronic mentally ill. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 1041–1046.
Duke, P. J., Pantells, C. & Barnes, T. R. E. (1994) South Westminster schizophrenia survey. Alcohol use and its relationship to symptoms, tardive dyskinesia and illness onset. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 630–636.
Hambrecht, M. & Hafner, H. (1996) Substance abuse and the onset of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 1155–1163.
Harrison, G., Giazebrook, C., Brewin, J., et al (1997) Increased incidence of psychotic disorders in migrants from the Caribbean to the United Kingdom. Psychological Medicine, 27, 799–806.
Jebiensky, A., Sartorius, N., Ernberg, G., et al (1992) Schizophrenia: Manifestations, Incidence and Course in Different Cultures. A World Health Organization Ten Country Study (Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement 20). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
King, M., Coker, E., Leavey, G., et al (1994) Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups. British Medical Journal, 309, 1115–1119.
Linszen, D. H., Dingemans, P. M. & Lenior, M. E. (1994) Cannabis abuse and the course of recent-onset schizophrenic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 273–279.
Maisto, S. A., McKay, J. R. & Connors, G. J. (1990) Self-report issues in substance abuse: state of the art and future directions. Behavioural Assessment, 12, 117–134.
Menezes, P. R., Johnson, S., Thornicroft, G., et al (1994) Drug and alcohol problems among individuals with severe mental illnesses in south London. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 612–619.
Mueser, K. T., Yarnold, P. R., Levinson, D. F., et al (1990) Prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia: demographic and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 31–56.
Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., et al (1990) Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 2511–2518.
Selzer, J. A. & Lieberman, J. A. (1993) Schizophrenia and substance abuse. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16, 401–412.
Shaner, A., Khalsa, M. E., Roberts, L., et al (1993) Unrecognised cocaine use among schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry: 150, 758–762.
Singh, S. P., Cantwell, R., Amin, S., et al (1998) ICD–10 acute and substance-related psychoses: diagnostic stability at 3 years. Schizophrenia Research, 29, 22.
Strakowski, S. M., Tohen, M., Stoll, A. L., et al (1993) Comorbidity in psychosis at first hospitalization. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 752–757.
Wilkins, J. N., Shaner, A. L., Patterson, C. M., et al (1991) Discrepancies between patient report, clinical assessment, and urine analysis in psychiatric patients during inpatient admission. Psychopharmocology Bulletin, 27, 149–154.
World Health Organization (1993) The Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems (ICD–10): (a) Diagnostic Criteria for Research; (b) Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (1994) Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2. Geneva: WHO.