Wong, MK, Crawford, TJ, Gask, L, Grinyer, A. A qualitative investigation into women's experiences
after a miscarriage: implications for the primary healthcare
team. Br J Gen Pract
Farquharson, RG, Jauniaux, E, Exalto, N, ESHRE Special Interest Group for Early Pregnancy
(SIGEP). Updated and revised nomenclature for
description of early pregnancy events. Hum
2005; 20: 3008–11.
Office for National Statistics. Birth Statistics
1996, England and Wales. Office for National
Martin, JA, Kochanek, KD, Strobino, DM, Guyer, B, MacDorman, MF. Annual summary of vital
2005; 115: 619–34.
Janssen, HJEM, Cuisinier, MCJP, Hoogduin, KALM, de Graauw, KPHM. Controlled prospective study on the mental health of
women following pregnancy loss. Am J
1996; 153: 226–30.
Beutel, M, Deckardt, R, Von, RM, Weiner, H. Grief and depression after miscarriage: their
separation, antecedents, and course. Psychosom
1995; 57: 517–26.
Neugebauer, R, Kline, J, Shrout, P, Skodol, A, O'Connor, P, Geller, PA, et al. Major depressive disorder in the 6 months
after miscarriage. JAMA
1997; 277: 383–8.
Neugebauer, R, Kline, J, O'Connor, P, Shrout, P, Johnson, J, Skodol, A, et al. Depressive symptoms in women in the six
months after miscarriage. Am J Obstet
1992; 166: 104–9.
Thapar, AK, Thapar, A. Psychological sequelae of miscarriage: a controlled
study using the general health questionnaire and the hospital anxiety and
depression scale. Br J Gen Pract
1992; 42: 94–6.
Lok, IH, Yip, AS, Lee, DT, Sahota, D, Chung, TK. A 1-year longitudinal study of psychological
morbidity after miscarriage. Fertil
2010; 93: 1966–75.
Cordle, CJ, Prettyman, RJ. A 2-year follow-up of women who have experienced
early miscarriage. J Reprod Infant
Garel, M, Blondel, B, Lelong, N, Bonenfant, S, Kaminski, M. Long-term consequences of miscarriage: the
depressive disorders and the following pregnancy.
J Reprod Infant Psychol
1994; 12: 233–40.
Wolff, JR, Nielson, PE, Schiller, P. The emotional reaction to a
stillbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol
1970; 108: 73–7.
Hughes, PM, Turton, P, Evans, CD. Stillbirth as risk factor for depression and anxiety
in the subsequent pregnancy: cohort study.
1999; 318: 1721–4.
Côté-Arsenault, D. The influence of perinatal loss on anxiety in
multigravidas. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal
2003; 32: 623–9.
Theut, SK, Pedersen, FA, Zaslow, MJ, Rabinovich, BA. Pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss: parental
anxiety and depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc
1988; 27: 289–92.
Franche, RL, Mikail, SF. The impact of perinatal loss on adjustment to
subsequent pregnancy. Soc Sci Med
1999; 48: 1613–23.
Armstrong, DS, Hutti, MH, Myers, J. The influence of prior perinatal loss on parents'
psychological distress after the birth of a subsequent healthy
infant. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
2009; 38: 654–66.
Hunfeld, JA, Taselaar-Kloos, AK, Agterberg, G, Wladimiroff, JW, Passchier, J. Trait anxiety, negative emotions, and the mothers'
adaptation to an infant born subsequent to late pregnancy loss: a
case-control study. Prenat Diagn
1997; 17: 843–51.
Golding, J, Pembrey, M, Jones, R. ALSPAC – the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and
Children. I. Study methodology. Paediatr Perinat
Birtchnell, J, Evans, C, Kennard, J. The total score of the Crown-Crisp Experiential
Index: a useful and valid measure of psychoneurotic
pathology. Br J Med Psychol
1988; 61: 255–66.
Spielberger, CD. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: A Comprehensive
Bibliography. Consulting Psychological
Cox, JL, Holden, JM, Sagovsky, R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of
the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
Br J Psychiatry
1987; 150: 782–6.
Murray, D, Cox, J. Screening for depression during pregnancy with the
Edinburgh depression scale (EPDS). J Reprod
Melki, IS, Beydoun, HA, Khogali, M, Tamim, H, Yunis, KA, National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network
(NCPNN). Household crowding index: a correlate of
socioeconomic status and inter-pregnancy spacing in an urban
setting. J Epidemiol Community Health
2004; 58: 476–80.
Robins, JM, Rotnitzky, A, Zhao, LP. Analysis of semiparametric regression models for
repeated outcomes in the presence of missing data.
J Am Stat Assoc
1995; 90: 106–21.
Armstrong, D, Hutti, M. Pregnancy after perinatal loss: the relationship
between anxiety and prenatal attachment. J Obstet
Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
1998; 27: 183–9.
Theut, SK, Moss, HA, Zaslow, MJ, Rabinovich, BA, Levin, L, Bartko, JJ. Perinatal loss and maternal attitudes towards the
subsequent child. Infant Ment Health J
Heller, SS, Zeanah, CH. Attachment disturbances in infants born subsequent
to perinatal loss: a pilot study. Infant Ment
1999; 20: 188–99.
Hughes, P, Turton, P, Hopper, E, McGauley, GA, Fonagy, P. Disorganised attachment behaviour among infants born
subsequent to stillbirth. J Child Psychol
Brockington, IF. Motherhood and Mental Health.
Oxford University Press,
Brown, GW, Harris, TO, Hepworth, C. Life events and endogenous depression. A puzzle
reexamined. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1994; 51: 525–34.
Heron, J, O'Connor, TG, Evans, J, Golding, J, Glover, V. The course of anxiety and depression through
pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample.
J Affect Disord
Robertson, E, Grace, S, Wallington, T, Stewart, DE. Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a
synthesis of recent literature. Gen Hosp
2004; 26: 289–95.
O'Hara, MW, Swain, AM. Rates and risk of postpartum depression – a meta
analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry
Halligan, SL, Herbert, J, Goodyer, I, Murray, L. Disturbances in morning cortisol secretion in
association with maternal postnatal depression predict subsequent
depressive symptomatology in adolescents. Biol
2007; 62: 40–6.
Halligan, SL, Murray, L, Martins, C, Cooper, PJ. Maternal depression and psychiatric outcomes in
adolescent offspring: a 13-year longitudinal study.
J Affect Disord
2007; 97: 145–54.
Murray, L, Halligan, SL, Adams, G, Patterson, P, Goodyer, IM. Socioemotional development in adolescents at risk
for depression: the role of maternal depression and attachment
style. Dev Psychopathol
Bergman, K, Glover, V, Sarkar, P, O'Connor, TG. Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive
development: moderation by infant-mother attachment.
2010; 67: 1026–32.
O'Connor, TG, Heron, J, Golding, J, Beveridge, M, Glover, V. Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's
behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years: report from the Avon
Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Br J
2002; 180: 502–8.