1Jones, KD. The unstructured clinical interview. J Couns Dev 2010; 88: 220–6.
2Brugha, TS, Bebbington, PE, Jenkins, R. A difference that matters: comparisons of structured and semi-structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in the general population. Psychol Med 1999; 29: 1013–20.
3Nosen, E, Woody, SR. Chapter 8: Diagnostic assessment in research. In Handbook of Research Methods in Abnormal and Clinical Psychology (ed McKay, D). Sage, 2008, pp.109–124.
4First, MB. Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM (SCID). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.
5World Health Organization. Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry: Manual. Amer Psychiatric Pub Inc., 1994.
6Kurdyak, PA, Gnam, WH. Small signal, big noise: performance of the CIDI depression module. Can J Psychiatry 2005; 50: 851–6.
7Robins, LN, Wing, J, Wittchen, HU, Helzer, JE, Babor, TF, Burke, J, et al. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 1069–77.
8Robins, LN, Helzer, JE, Croughan, J, Ratcliff, KS. National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics, and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981; 38: 381–9.
9Lecrubier, Y, Sheehan, DV, Weiller, E, Amorim, P, Bonora, I, Harnett-Sheehan, K, et al. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry 1997; 12: 224–31.
10Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Harnett-Sheehan, K, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, Keskiner, A, et al. The validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) according to the SCID-P and its reliability. Eur Psychiatry 1997; 12: 232–41.
11Brugha, TS, Jenkins, R, Taub, N, Meltzer, H, Bebbington, PE. A general population comparison of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Psychol Med 2001; 31: 1001–13.
12Rice, DB, Kloda, LA, Shrier, I, Thombs, BD. Reporting completeness and transparency of meta-analyses of depression screening tool accuracy: a comparison of meta-analyses published before and after the PRISMA statement. J Psychosom Res 2016; 87: 57–69.
13Anthony, JC, Folstein, M, Romanoski, AJ, Von Korff, MR, Nestadt, GR, Chahal, R, et al. Comparison of the lay Diagnostic Interview Schedule and a standardized psychiatric diagnosis: experience in eastern Baltimore. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985; 42: 667–75.
14Booth, BM, Kirchner, JA, Hamiltonc, G, Harrell, R, Smith, GR. Diagnosing depression in the medically ill: validity of a lay-administered structured diagnostic interview. J Psychiatr Res 1998; 32: 353–60.
15Hesselbrock, V, Stabenau, J, Hesselbrock, M, Mirkin, P, Meyer, R. A comparison of two interview schedules: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime and the National Institute for Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982; 39: 674–7.
16Jordanova, V, Wickramesinghe, C, Gerada, C, Prince, M. Validation of two survey diagnostic interviews among primary care attendees: a comparison of CIS-R and CIDI with SCAN ICD-10 diagnostic categories. Psychol Med 2004; 34: 1013–24.
17Thombs, BD, Benedetti, A, Kloda, LA, Levis, B, Nicolau, I, Cuijpers, P, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses. Syst Rev 2014; 27(3): 124.
18McGowan, J, Sampson, M, Salzwedel, DM, Cogo, E, Foerster, V, Lefebvre, C. PRESS Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies: 2015 Guideline Statement. J Clin Epidemiol 2016; 75:40–6.
19Sampson, M, Barrowman, NJ, Moher, D, Klassen, TP, Pham, B, Platt, R, et al. Should meta-analysts search Embase in addition to Medline? J Clin Epidemiol 2003; 56: 943–55.
20Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001; 16: 606–13.
21Thombs, BD, Arthurs, E, El-Baalbaki, G, Meijer, A, Ziegelstein, RC, Steele, RJ. Risk of bias from inclusion of patients who already have diagnosis of or are undergoing treatment for depression in diagnostic accuracy studies of screening tools for depression: systematic review. BMJ 2011; 343: d4825.
22Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-III 3rd ed, revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association 1987.
23Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association 1994.
24Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV 4th ed, text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association 2000.
25The ICD-10 Classifications of Mental and Behavioural Disorder: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines Geneva: World Health Organization 1992.
27Whiting, PF, Rutjes, AW, Westwood, ME, Mallett, S, Deeks, JJ, Reitsma, JB, et al. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Ann Intern Med 2011; 155: 529–36.
28Huang, FY, Chung, H, Kroenke, K, Delucchi, KL, Spitzer, RL. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to measure depression among racially and ethnically diverse primary care patients. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21: 547–52.
29Martin, A, Rief, W, Klaiberg, A, Braehler, E. Validity of the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire Mood Scale (PHQ-9) in the general population. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2006; 28: 717.
30Adewuya, AO, Ola, BA, Afolabi, OO. Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. J Affect Disord 2006; 96: 89–93.
31Milette, K, Hudson, M, Baron, M, Thombs, BD. Comparison of the PHQ-9 and CES-D depression scales in systemic sclerosis: internal consistency reliability, convergent validity and clinical correlates. Rheumatology 2010; 49: 789–96.
32Moriarty, AS, Gilbody, S, McMillan, D, Manea, L. Screening and case finding for major depressive disorder using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): a meta-analysis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2015; 37: 567–76.
33Thombs, BD, Benedetti, A, Kloda, LA, Levis, B, Riehm, KE, Azar, M, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for detecting major depression in pregnant and postnatal women: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses. BMJ Open 2015; 5: e009742.
34Thombs, BD, Benedetti, A, Kloda, LA, Levis, B, Azar, M, Riehm, KE, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses. BMJ Open 2016; 6: e011913.
35Arthurs, E, Steele, RJ, Hudson, M, Baron, M, Thombs, BD, Canadian Scleroderma Research Group. Are scores on English and French versions of the PHQ-9 comparable? An assessment of differential item functioning. PLoS One 2012; 7: e52028.
36Huang, FY, Chung, H, Kroenke, K, Delucchi, KL, Spitzer, RL. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to measure depression among racially and ethnically diverse primary care patients. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21: 547–52.
37Chung, H, Kim, J, Askew, RL, Jones, SMW, Cook, KF, Amtmann, D. Assessing measurement invariance of three depression scales between neurologic samples and community samples. Qual Life Res 2015; 24: 1829–34.
38Cook, KF, Kallen, MA, Bombardier, C, Bamer, AM, Choi, SW, Kim, J, et al. Do measures of depressive symptoms function differently in people with spinal cord injury versus primary care patients: the CES-D, PHQ-9, and PROMIS-D. Qual Lif Res 2017; 26: 139–48.
39Leavens, A, Patten, SB, Hudson, M, Baron, M, Thombs, BD, Canadian Scleroderma Research Group. Influence of somatic symptoms on Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression scores among patients with systemic sclerosis compared to a healthy general population sample. Arthritis Care Res 2012; 64: 1195–201.