Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years

  • Julie Karsten (a1), Catharina A. Hartman (a1), Johannes H. Smit (a2), Frans G. Zitman (a3), Aartjan T. F. Beekman (a2), Pim Cuijpers (a4), A. J. Willem van der Does (a5), Johan Ormel (a1), Willem A. Nolen (a1) and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx (a6)...
Abstract
Background

Past episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders and subthreshold symptoms have both been reported to predict the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the two factors interact or predict these disorders independently.

Aims

To examine the extent to which history, subthreshold symptoms and their combination predict the occurrence of depressive (major depressive disorder, dysthymia) or anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder) over a 2-year period.

Method

This was a prospective cohort study with 1167 participants: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, subthreshold symptoms were determined with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self Report and the Beck Anxiety Inventory.

Results

Occurrence of depressive disorder was best predicted by a combination of a history of depression and subthreshold symptoms, followed by either one alone. Occurrence of anxiety disorder was best predicted by both a combination of a history of anxiety disorder and subthreshold symptoms and a combination of a history of depression and subthreshold symptoms, followed by any subthreshold symptoms or a history of any disorder alone.

Conclusions

A history and subthreshold symptoms independently predicted the subsequent occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder. Together these two characteristics provide reasonable discriminative value. Whereas anxiety predicted the occurrence of an anxiety disorder only, depression predicted the occurrence of both depressive and anxiety disorders.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Julie Karsten, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, PO box 660, 9700 AR, Groningen, The Netherlands. E-mail: J.Karsten@accare.nl
Footnotes
Hide All

The infrastructure for the NESDA study (www.nesda.nl) is funded through the Geestkracht programme of the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (Zon-Mw, grant number 10-000-1002) and is supported by participating universities and mental healthcare organisations: VU University Medical Center, GGZ inGeest, Arkin, Leiden University Medical Center, GGZ Rivierduinen, University Medical Center Groningen, Lentis, GGZ Friesland, GGZ Drenthe, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare (IQ healthcare), Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) and Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute).

Declaration of interest

W.A.N. has received speaking fees from Astra Zeneca, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, Servier, Wyeth; unrestricted research funding from Astra Zeneca, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Wyeth; and served on advisory boards for Astra Zeneca, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Servier.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Kessler, RC, Chiu, WT, Demler, O, Walters, EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 617–27.
2 Kessler, RC, Merikangas, KR, Wang, PS. Prevalence, comorbidity, and service utilization for mood disorders in the United States at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2007; 3: 137–58.
3 Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW, Monahan, PO, Löwe, B. Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146: 317–25.
4 Judd, LL, Paulus, MP, Wells, KB, Rapaport, MH. Socioeconomic burden of subsyndromal depressive symptoms and major depression in a sample of the general population. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 1411–7.
5 Cuijpers, P, Van Straten, A, Smit, F, Mihalopoulos, C, Beekman, ATF. Preventing the onset of depressive disorders: a meta-analytic review of psychological interventions. Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 1272–80.
6 Muñoz, RF, Cuijpers, P, Smit, F, Barrera, AZ, Leykin, Y. Prevention of major depression. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2010; 6: 181212.
7 Angst, J, Gamma, A, Sellaro, R, Lavori, PW, Zhang, H. Recurrence of bipolar disorders and major depression: a life-long perspective. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003; 253: 236–40.
8 Vuorilehto, MS, Melartin, TK, Isometsä, ET. Course and outcome of depressive disorders in primary care: a prospective 18-month study. Psychol Med 2009; 39: 1697–707.
9 Cuijpers, P, Smit, F. Subthreshold depression as a risk indicator for major depressive disorder: a systematic review of prospective studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004; 109: 325–31.
10 Merikangas, KR, Zhang, H, Avenevoli, S, Acharyya, S, Neuenschwander, M, Angst, J. Longitudinal trajectories of depression and anxiety in a prospective community study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 9931000.
11 Batelaan, NM, De Graaf, R, Spijker, J, Smit, JH, Van Balkom, JLM, Vollebergh, WAM, et al. The course of panic attacks in individuals with panic disorder and subthreshold panic disorder: a population-based study. J Affect Disord 2010; 121: 30–8.
12 Acarturk, C, Smit, F, De Graaf, R, Van Straten, A, Ten Have, M, Cuijpers, P. Incidence of social phobia and identification of its risk indicators: a model for prevention. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009; 119: 6270.
13 Penninx, BWJH, Beekman, AT, Smit, JH, Zitman, FG, Nolen, WA, Spinhoven, P, et al. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2008; 17: 121–40.
14 Donker, T, Comijs, H, Cuijpers, P, Terluin, B, Nolen, W, Zitman, F, et al. The validity of the Dutch K10 and extended K10 screening scales for depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychiatry Res 2010; 176: 4550.
15 Kessler, RC, Andrews, G, Mroczek, D, Üstü, B, Wittchen, HU. World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview short-form (CIDI-SF). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 1998; 7: 171–85.
16 Kessler, RC, Andrews, G, Colpe, LJ, Hiripi, E, Mroczek, DK, Normand, S-LT, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med 2002; 32: 959–76.
17 Ansseau, M, Fischler, B, Dierick, M, Albert, A, Leyman, S, Mignon, A. Socioeconomic correlates of generalized anxiety disorder and major depression in primary care: the GADIS II study (Generalized Anxiety and Depression Impact Survey II). Depress Anxiety 2008; 25: 506–13.
18 Bijl, RV, Ravelli, A. Current and residual functional disability associated with psychopathology: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study. Psychol Med 2000; 30: 657–68.
19 Beekman, ATF, Penninx, BWJH, Deeg, DJH, Ormel, J, Braam, AW, Van Tilburg, W. Depression and physical health in later life: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). J Affect Disord 1997; 46: 219–31.
20 World Health Organization. Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). World Health Organization, 1997.
21 Rush, AJ, Giles, DE, Schlesser, MA, Fulton, CL, Weissenburger, J, Burns, C. The Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS): preliminary findings. Psychiatry Res 1986; 18: 6587.
22 Rush, AJ, First, MB, Burns, B. Handbook of Psychiatric Measures (2nd edn). American Psychiatric Publishing, 2008.
23 Corruble, E, Legrand, JM, Duret, C, Charles, G, Guelfi, JD. IDS-C and IDS-SR: psychometric properties in depressed in-patients. J Affect Disord 1999; 56: 95101.
24 Rush, AJ, Trivedi, MH, Carmody, TJ, Ibrahim, HM, Markowitz, JC, Keitner, GI, et al. Sef-reported depressive symptom measures: sensitivity to detecting change in a randomized, controlled trial of chronically depressed, nonpsychotic outpatients. Neuropsychopharmacol 2005; 30: 405–16.
25 Trivedi, MH, Rush, AJ, Ibrahim, HM, Carmody, TJ, Biggs, MM, Suppes, T, et al. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rating (IDS-C) and Self-Report (IDS-SR) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rating (QIDS-C) and Self-Report (QIDS-SR) in public sector patients with mood disorders: a psychometric evaluation. Psychol Med 2004; 34: 7382.
26 Karsten, J, Hartman, CA, Ormel, J, Nolen, WA, Penninx, BWJH. Subthreshold depression based on functional impairment better defined by symptom severity than by number of DSM-IV symptoms. J Affect Disord 2010; 123: 230–7.
27 Beck, AT, Epstein, N, Brown, G, Steer, RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988; 56: 893–7.
28 Steer, RA, Ranieri, WF, Beck, AT, Clark, DA. Further evidence for the validity of the Beck Anxiety Inventory with psychiatric outpatients. J Anxiety Disord 1993; 7: 195205.
29 Beck, AT, Steer, RA. Relationship between the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale with anxious outpatients. J Anxiety Disord 1991; 5: 213–23.
30 Borden, JW, Peterson, DR, Jackson, EA. The Beck Anxiety Inventory in nonclinical samples: initial psychometric properties. J Psychopathol Behav 1991; 4: 345–56.
31 Karsten, J, Nolen, WA, Penninx, BWJH, Hartman, CA. Subthreshold anxiety better defined by Beck Anxiety Inventory than the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. J Affect Disord 2010; Oct 16 (Epub ahead of print).
32 Hosmer, DW, Lemeshow, S. Applied Logistic Regression. Wiley, 2000.
33 Darroch, J. Biologic synergism and parallelism. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 661–8.
34 Ormel, J, Oldehinkel, AJ, Brilman, EI. The interplay and etiological continuity of neuroticism, difficulties, and life events in the etiology of major and subsyndromal, first and recurrent depressive episodes in later life. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 885–91.
35 Burcusa, SL, Iacono, WG. Risk for recurrence in depression. Clin Psychol Rev 2007; 27: 959–85.
36 De Graaf, R, Bijl, RV, Ten Have, M, Beekman, ARF, Vollebergh, WAM. Rapid onset of comorbidity of common mental disorders: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004; 109: 5563.
37 Cuijpers, P, Smit, F, Willemse, G. Predicting the onset of major depression in subjects with subthreshold depression in primary care: a prospective study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2005; 111: 133–8.
38 Andrews, G, Anderson, TM, Slade, T, Sunderland, M. Classification of anxiety and depressive disorders: problems and solutions. Depress Anxiety 2008; 25: 274–81.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years

  • Julie Karsten (a1), Catharina A. Hartman (a1), Johannes H. Smit (a2), Frans G. Zitman (a3), Aartjan T. F. Beekman (a2), Pim Cuijpers (a4), A. J. Willem van der Does (a5), Johan Ormel (a1), Willem A. Nolen (a1) and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx (a6)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *