Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Psychiatric morbidity and substance use in young people aged 13–15 years: results from the Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health

  • A. Boys (a1), M. Farrell (a1), C. Taylor (a1), J. Marsden (a1), R. Goodman (a2), T. Brugha (a3), P. Bebbington (a4), R. Jenkins (a5) and H. Meltzer (a6)...
Abstract
Background

Psychoactive substance use is strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity in both adults and adolescents.

Aims

To determine which of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is most closely linked to psychiatric disorders in early adolescence.

Method

Data from 2624 adolescents aged 13–15 years were drawn from a national mental health survey of children. The relationship between psychiatric morbidity and smoking, drinking and cannabis use was examined by logistic regression analyses.

Results

Having a psychiatric disorder was associated with an increased risk of substance use. Greater involvement with any one substance increased the risk of other substance use. Analyses of the interactions between smoking, drinking and cannabis use indicated that the relationship between substance use and psychiatric morbidity was primarily explained by regular smoking and (to a lesser extent) regular cannabis use.

Conclusions

In this sample, links between substance use and psychiatric disorders were primarily accounted for by smoking. The strong relationship is likely to be due to a combination of underlying individual constitutional factors and drug-specific effects resulting from consumption over the period of adolescent development and growth.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Psychiatric morbidity and substance use in young people aged 13–15 years: results from the Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Psychiatric morbidity and substance use in young people aged 13–15 years: results from the Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Psychiatric morbidity and substance use in young people aged 13–15 years: results from the Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Annabel Boys, National Addiction Centre, 4 Windsor Walk, London SE5 8AF, UK. E-mail: a.boys@iop.kcl.ac.uk
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None. Funding details in Acknowledgements.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn) (DSM–III). Washington, DC: APA.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Anderson, K., Plant, M. & Plant, M. (1998) Associations between drinking, smoking and illicit drug use among adolescents in the Western Isles of Scotland: implications for harm minimization. Journal of Substance Misuse, 3, 1320.
Becher, H., Boreham, R., Emery, P., et al (2001) Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use Among Young People in England in 2000 (eds Boreham, R. & Shaw, A.), pp. 9598. London: Stationery Office.
Breslau, N., Kilbey, M. M. & Andreski, P. (1991) Nicotine dependence, major depression, and anxiety in young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 10691074.
Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E. & Jenkins, R. (1999) A difference that matters: comparisons of structured and semi-structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 29, 10131020.
CACI Information Services (1993) ACORN User Guide. London: CACI.
Degenhardt, L. & Hall, W. (2001) The relationship between tobacco use, substance-use disorders and mental health: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 3, 225234.
Degenhardt, L., Hall, W. & Lynskey, M. (2001) Alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use among Australians: a comparison of their associations with other drug use and use disorders, affective and anxiety disorders, and psychosis. Addiction, 96, 16031614.
Dierker, L. C., Avenevoli, S., Merikangas, K. R., et al (2001) Association between psychiatric disorders and the progression of tobacco use behaviors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 11591167.
Farrell, M., Howes, S., Bebbington, P., et al (2001) Nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity: results of a national household survey. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 432437.
Fergusson, D. M. & Woodward, L. J. (2002) Mental health, educational, and social role outcomes of adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 225231.
Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T. & Horwood, J. L. (1997) The short-term consequences of early onset cannabis use. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 499512.
Glassman, A. H., Helzer, J. E., Covey, L. S., et al (1990) Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression. JAMA, 264, 15461549.
Goddard, E. & Higgins, V. (1999) Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use Among Young Teenagers in 1998. Vol. I: England. London: Stationery Office.
Goodman, R., Ford, T., Simmons, H., et al (2000) Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 534539.
Government Statistical Service (1996) Harmonised Concepts and Questions for Government Social Surveys. London: Office for National Statistics.
Jarvis, M. J. & Wardle, J. (1999) Social patterning of individual health behaviours: the case of cigarette smoking. In Social Determinants of Health (eds Marmot, M. G. & Wilkinson, R. G.), pp. 240255. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kandel, D. B., Johnson, J. G., Bird, H. R., et al (1999) Psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents with substance use disorders: findings from the MECA study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 693699.
Kandel, D. B., Huang, F. Y. & Davies, M. (2001) Comorbidity between patterns of substance use dependence and psychiatric syndromes. Drugs and Alcohol Dependence, 64, 233241.
Kessler, R. C., Crum, R. M., Warner, L. A., et al (1997) Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM—III—R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 313321.
Meltzer, H., Gatward, R., Goodman, R., et al (2000) Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in Great Britain. London: Stationery Office.
Milich, R., Lynam, D., Zimmerman, R., et al (2000) Differences in young adult psychopathology among drug abstainers, experimenters, and frequent users. Journal of Substance Abuse, 11, 6988.
Patton, G. C., Hibbert, M., Rosier, M. J., et al (1996) Is smoking associated with depression and anxiety in teenagers? American Journal of Public Health, 86, 225230.
Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., et al (1990) Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. JAMA, 264, 25112518.
Reilly, D., Didcott, P., Swift, W., et al (1998) Long-term cannabis use: characteristics of users in an Australian rural area. Addiction, 93, 837846.
Rey, J. M., Sawyer, M. G., Raphael, B., et al (2002) Mental health of teenagers who use cannabis: results of an Australian survey. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 216221.
Rohde, P., Lewsinsohn, P. M. & Seeley, J. R. (1996) Psychiatric comorbidity with problematic alcohol use in high school students. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 101109.
Troisi, A., Pasini, A., Saracco, M., et al (1998) Psychiatric symptomsin male cannabis users not using other illicit drugs. Addiction, 93, 487492.
Weinberg, N. Z., Rahdert, E., Colliver, J. D., et al (1998) Adolescent substance abuse: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 252261.
World Health Organization (1992) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD–10). Geneva: WHO.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 40 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 177 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 3rd January 2018 - 25th May 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Psychiatric morbidity and substance use in young people aged 13–15 years: results from the Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health

  • A. Boys (a1), M. Farrell (a1), C. Taylor (a1), J. Marsden (a1), R. Goodman (a2), T. Brugha (a3), P. Bebbington (a4), R. Jenkins (a5) and H. Meltzer (a6)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *