Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Rates and correlates of employment in people with schizophrenia in the UK, France and Germany

  • Steven Marwaha (a1), Sonia Johnson (a1), Paul Bebbington (a1), Mai Stafford (a2), Matthias C. Angermeyer (a3), Traolach Brugha (a4), Jean-Michel Azorin (a5), Reinhold Kilian (a6), Karina Hansen (a7) and Mondher Toumi (a7)...

Abstract

Background

Little is known about international variations in employment rates among people with schizophrenia or about the factors associated with employment in this disorder.

Aims

To describe employment patterns and the variables associated with working in an international sample of people with schizophrenia.

Method

An analysis was made of baseline data from the European Schizophrenia Cohort study, a 2-year investigation of people with schizophrenia in contact with secondary services and living in France, Germany and the UK (n = 1208).

Results

Participants were working in all sections of the job market. People who had a degree, were living with their families or had experienced only a single episode of illness were more likely to be working. A continuous illness course, more severe non-psychotic symptoms and drug misuse reduced the odds of employment. There were large variations between centres in employment rates, which were highest in the three German study sites. These differences persisted after adjustment for individual characteristics.

Conclusions

Local social contexts may be as important as individual or illness-related factors in explaining employment status.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Rates and correlates of employment in people with schizophrenia in the UK, France and Germany
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Rates and correlates of employment in people with schizophrenia in the UK, France and Germany
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Rates and correlates of employment in people with schizophrenia in the UK, France and Germany
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Dr Steven Marwaha, c/o M. Trott, Department of Mental Health Sciences, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, 48 Riding House Street, London WIW 7EY, UK. Email: stevenmarwaha@yahoo.co.uk

Footnotes

Hide All

Declaration of interest

Funding from Lundbeck A/S and the German Federal Ministry of Educationand Research.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM-IV). APA.
Anthony, W. A. & Jansen, M. A. (1984) Predicting the vocational capacity of the chronically mentally ill: research and policy implications. American Psychologist. 39, 537544.
Bacani-Oropilla, T., Lippmann, S., Tully, E., et al (1991) Patients with mental disorders who work. Southern Medical Journal, 84, 323327.
Bebbington, P., Angermeyer, M., Azorin, J.-M. et al (2005) The European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC): a naturalistic prognostic and economic study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 707717.
Cook, J. A. & Razzanno, L. (2000) Vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia: recent research and implications for practice. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 204208.
Drake, R. E., Fox, T. S., Leather, P. K., et al (1998) Regional variation in competitive employment for persons with severe mental illness. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 25, 493504.
European Commission (2002). Employment in Europe 2002. Recent Trends and Prospects. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L. & Williams, J. B. W. (1997) Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Patient Version. American Psychiatric Press.
Gaite, L., Vazquez-Barquero, J. L., Borra, C., et al (2002) Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in five European countries: the EPSILON study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 105, 283292.
Honey, A. (2004) Benefits and drawbacks of employment: perspectives of people with mental illness. Qualitative Health Research, 14, 381395.
Huxley, P. & Thornicroft, G. (2003) Social inclusion, social quality and mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 289290.
Johnson, S., Kuhlmann, R. & the EPCAT Group (2000) The European service Mapping Schedule (ESMS): development of an instrument for the description and classification of mental health services. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102 (suppl. 405), 1423.
Kay, S. R., Opler, L. A. & Lindenmayer, J. P. (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261276.
Kay, S. R., Opler, L. A. & Lindenmayer, J. P. (1989) The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation. British Journal of Psychiatry 155 (suppl. 7), 5965.
Lehman, A. F. (1983) The effects of psychiatric symptoms on quality of life assessments among the chronically mentally ill. Evaluation and Program Planning, 6, 143151.
Marwaha, S. & Johnson, S. (2004) Schizophrenia and employment: a review, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 337349.
Marwaha, S. & Johnson, S. (2005) Views and experiences of work among the seriously mentally ill: a qualitative descriptive study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 51, 302316.
Morgan, R. & Gopalaswamy, A. K. (1983) Employability of the mentally disabled in the 1970s. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 572574.
Nickell, S. (2004) Poverty and worklessness in Britain. Economic Journal, 114, C1C25.
Office for National Statistics (2000) Standard Occupational Classification 2000. (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/methods_quality/ns_sec/downloads/soc2000=voll=v5.pdf).
Perkins, R. & Rinaldi, M. (2002) Unemployment rates among patients with long-term mental health problems. Psychiatric Bulletin, 26, 295298.
Rogers, W. H. (1993) Regression standard errors in clustered samples. Stata Technical Bulletin, 13, 1923.
Sartorius, N. & Kuyken, W. (1994) Translation of health status instruments. In Quality of Life Assessment: International Perspectives (eds Orley, J. & Kuyken, W.), pp. 218. Springer
Secker, J., Grove, B. & Seebohm, P. (2001) Challenging barriers to employment, training and education for mental health service users: the service user's perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 10, 395404.
Todd, J., Green, G., Harrison, M., et al (2004) Social exclusion in clients with comorbid mental health and substance misuse problems. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 581587.
UK700 Group (1999) Comparison of intensive and standard case management for patients with psychosis. Rationale of the trial. UK700 Group. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 7478.
Warner, R. (2004) Recovery from Schizophrenia: Psychiatry and Political Economy. Routledge.
Weiden, P., Rapkin, B., Mott, T., et al (1994) Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) Scale in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 297310.
Wing, J. K., Babor, T., Burke, J., et al (1990) SCAN: Schedules for Clinical assessment in Neuro Psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 589593.
World Health Organization (1973) The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. WHO.
World Health Organization (1992) SCAN: Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. WHO.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Rates and correlates of employment in people with schizophrenia in the UK, France and Germany

  • Steven Marwaha (a1), Sonia Johnson (a1), Paul Bebbington (a1), Mai Stafford (a2), Matthias C. Angermeyer (a3), Traolach Brugha (a4), Jean-Michel Azorin (a5), Reinhold Kilian (a6), Karina Hansen (a7) and Mondher Toumi (a7)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *