Otto, R, Douglas, K. Handbook of Violence Risk Assessment. Routledge, 2010.
Conroy, MA, Murrie, DC. Forensic Assessment of Violence Risk. Wiley, 2007.
Buchanan, A, Binder, R, Norko, M, Swartz, M. Psychiatric violence risk assessment. Am J Psychiatry
2012; 169: 340.
Higgins, N, Watts, D, Bindman, J, Slade, M, Thornicroft, G. Assessing violence risk in general adult psychiatry. Psychiatr Bull
2005; 29: 131–3.
Tolman, A, Mullendore, K. Risk evaluations for the courts: is service quality a function of specialization?
Prof Psychol Res Prac
2003; 34: 225–32.
Viljoen, JL, McLachlan, K, Vincent, GM. Assessing violence risk and psychopathy in juvenile and adult offenders: a survey of clinical practices. Assessment
2010; 17: 377–95.
Tyrer, P. An agitation of contrary opinions. Br J Psychiatry
2007; 190: s1–2.
Hart, SD, Michie, C, Cooke, DJ. Precision of actuarial risk assessment instruments. Evaluating the ‘margins of error’ of group v. individual predictions of violence. Br J Psychiatry
2007; 190: s60–5.
Cook, N. Use and misuse of the receiver operating characteristic curve in risk prediction. Circulation
2007; 115: 928–35.
Singh, JP, Grann, M, Fazel, S. A comparative study of violence risk assessment tools: a systematic review and metaregression analysis of 68 studies involving 25,980 participants. Clin Psychol Rev
2011; 31: 499–513.
Helmus, L, Hanson, RK, Thornton, D, Babchishin, KM, Harris, AJR. Absolute recidivism rates predicted by Static-99R and Static-2002R sex offender risk assessment tools vary across samples: a meta-analysis. Crim Justice Behav
2012; 39: 1148–71.
Looman, J. Comparison of two risk assessment instruments for sexual offenders. Sex Abuse
2006; 18: 193–206.
Helmus, L, Hanson, K, Thornton, D. Reporting Static-99 in light of new research on recidivism norms. Forum
2009; 21: 38–45.
Mossman, D. Another look at interpreting risk categories. Sex Abuse
2006; 18: 41–63.
Singh, JP, Fazel, S. Forensic risk assessment: a metareview. Crim Justice Behav
2010; 37: 965–88.
Andrews, DA, Bonta, J. LSI-R: The Level of Service Inventory – Revised. Multi-Health Systems, 1995.
Hare, RD. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised. Multi-Health Systems, 2003.
Quinsey, VL, Harris, GT, Rice, ME, Cormier, CA. Violent Offenders: Appraising and Managing Risk. American Psychological Association, 2006.
Harris, AJR, Phenix, A, Hanson, RK, Thornton, D. Static-99 Coding Rules: Revised 2003.
Solicitor General Canada, 2003.
Webster, CD, Douglas, KS, Eaves, D, Hart, SD. HCR-20: Assessing Risk for Violence. Simon Fraser University, 1997.
Boer, DP, Hart, SD, Kropp, PR, Webster, CD. Manual for the Sexual Violence Risk-20. Professional Guidelines for Assessing Risk of Sexual Violence. Simon Fraser University, 1997.
Kropp, PR, Hart, SD, Webster, CD, Eaves, D. Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide (SARA).
Multi-Health Systems, 1999.
Borum, R, Bartel, P, Forth, A. Manual for the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY): Version 1.1.
University of South Florida, 2003.
Landis, JR, Koch, GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics
1977; 33: 159–74.
Arbach, K, Pueyo, AA. Violence risk assessment in mental disorders with the HCR-20. Papeles del Psicologo
2007; 28: 174–86.
Beggs, SM, Grace, RC. Psychopathy, intelligence, and recidivism in child molesters: evidence of an interaction effect. Crim Justice Behav
2008; 35: 683–95.
Bengtson, S. Is newer better? A cross-validation of the Static-2002 and the Risk Matrix 2000 in a Danish sample of sexual offenders. Psychol Crim Law
2008; 14: 85–106.
Caperton, JD. Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders: Utility of the STATIC-99, Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised, and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Sam Houston State University, 2005.
Dahle, KP. Strengths and limitations of actuarial prediction of criminal reoffense in a German prison sample: a comparative study of LSI-R, HCR-20 and PCL-R. Int J Law Psychiatr
2006; 29: 431–42.
De Vogel, V, de Ruiter, C. The HCR-20 in personality disordered female offenders: a comparison with a matched sample of males. Clin Psychol Psychother
2005; 12: 226–40.
De Vogel, V, de Ruiter, C, van, Beek, Mead, G. Predictive validity of the SVR-20 and Static-99 in a Dutch sample of treated sex offenders. Law Hum Behav
2004; 28: 235–51.
Dempster, RJ. Prediction of Sexually Violent Recidivism: A Comparison of Risk Assessment Instruments. Simon Fraser University, 1998.
Dempster, RJ. Understanding Errors in Risk Assessment: The Application of Differential Prediction Methodology. Simon Fraser University, 2001.
Douglas, KS, Ogloff, JRP, Hart, SD. Evaluation of a model of violence risk assessment among forensic psychiatric patients. Psychiatr Serv
2003; 54: 1372–9.
Douglas, KS, Yeomans, M, Boer, DP. Comparative validity analysis of multiple measures of violence risk in a sample of criminal offenders. Crim Justice Behav
2005; 32: 479–510.
Eher, R, Rettenberger, M, Matthes, A. Aktuarische prognose bei Sexualstraftaetern [Actuarial predictions of sexual offenders]. Mschr Krim
2009; 92: 18–27.
Eher, R, Rettenberger, M, Schilling, F, Pfäfflin, F. Failure of Static-99 and SORAG to predict reoffense categories in relevant sexual offender subtypes: a prospective study. Sex Offend Treat
2008; 3: 1–14.
Folino, J, Almiron, M, Ricci, MA. Factores de riesgo de recidiva violenta en mujeres filicidas [Violent recidivism risk factor in filicidal women]. Vertex
2007; 18: 258–67.
Friendship, C, Mann, RE, Beech, AR. Evaluation of a national prison-based treatment program for sexual offenders in England and Wales. J Interpers Viol
2003; 18: 744–59.
Gammelgard, M, Koivisto, AM, Eronen, M, Kaltiala-Heino, R. The predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) among institutionalised adolescents. J Forensic Psychiatr Psychol
2008; 19: 352–70.
Gibas, AL, Kropp, PR, Hart, SD, Stewart, L. Validity of the SARA in a Canadian Sample of Incarcerated Adult Males. International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services, 2008.
Grann, M, Belfrage, H, Tengstrom, A. Actuarial assessment of risk for violence: predictive validity of the VRAG and the historical part of the HCR-20. Crim Justice Behav
2000; 27: 97–114.
Grann, M, Langstrom, N, Tengstrom, A, Kullgren, G. Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden. Law Hum Behav
1999; 23: 205–17.
Gretton, H, Abramowitz, C. SAVRY: Contribution of Items and Scales to Clinical Risk Judgments and Criminal Outcomes. American Psychology Law Society, 2002.
Harris, GT, Rice, ME, Quinsey, VL, Lalumiere, ML, Boer, D, Lang, C. A multisite comparison of actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders. Psychol Assess
2003; 15: 413–25.
Helmus, LMD, Hanson, RK. Predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-2002 for sex offenders on community supervision. Sex Offend Treat
2007; 2: 1–14.
Hill, A, Habermann, N, Klusmann, D, Berner, W, Briken, P. Criminal recidivism in sexual homicide perpetrators. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol
2008; 52: 5–20.
Ho, H, Thomson, L, Darjee, R. Violence risk assessment: the use of the PCL-SV, HCR-20, and VRAG to predict violence in mentally disordered offenders discharged from a medium secure unit in Scotland. J Forensic Psychiatr Psychol
2009; 4: 523–41.
Jovanovic, AA, Tosevski, DL, Ivkonvic, M, Damjanovic, A, Gasic, MJ. Predicting violence in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Vojnosanit Pregl
2009; 66: 13–21.
Kingston, DA, Yates, PM, Firestone, P, Babchishin, K, Bradford, JM. Long-term predictive validity of the Risk Matrix 2000: a comparison with the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide. Sex Abuse
2008; 20: 466–84.
Kloezeman, KC. Violent Behavior on Inpatient Psychiatric Units: The HCR-20 Violence Risk Assessment Scheme. University of Hawaii, 2004.
Kropp, PR, Hart, SD. The Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA) guide: reliability and validity in adult male offenders. Law Hum Behav
2000; 24: 101–18.
Lodewijks, HPB, Doreleijers, TAH, de Ruiter, C. SAVRY risk assessment in violent Dutch adolescents: relation to sentencing and recidivism. Crim Justice Behav
2008; 35: 696–709.
Lodewijks, HPB, de Ruiter, C, Doreleijers, TAH. Gender differences in violent outcome and risk assessment in adolescent offenders after residential treatment. Int J Forensic Ment Health
2008; 7: 105–41.
Lodewijks, HPB, Doreleijers, TAH, de Ruiter, C, Borum, R. Predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) during residential treatment. Int J Law Psychiatr
2008; 31: 263–71.
Looman, J, Abracen, J. Comparison of measures of risk for recidivism in sexual offenders. J Interpers Viol
2010; 25: 791–807.
McEachran, A. The Predictive Validity of the PCL:YV and the SAVRY in a Population of Adolescent Offenders. Simon Fraser University, 2001.
Meyers, JR, Schmidt, F. Predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) with juvenile offenders. Crim Justice Behav
2008; 35: 344–55.
Mills, JF, Kroner, DG. The effect of discordance among violence and general recidivism risk estimates on predictive accuracy. Crim Behav Ment Health
2006; 16: 155–66.
Morrissey, C, Hogue, T, Mooney, P, Allen, C, Johnston, S, Hollin, C, et al.
Predictive validity of the PCL-R in offenders with intellectual disability in a high secure hospital setting: institutional aggression. J Forensic Psychiatr Psychol
2007; 18: 1–15.
Pedersen, L, Rasmussen, K, Elsass, P. Risk assessment: the value of structured professional judgments. Int J Forensic Ment Health
2010; 9: 74–81.
Polvi, NH. The Prediction of Violence in Pre-trial Forensic Patients: The Relative Efficacy of Statistical versus Clinical Predictions of Dangerousness. Simon Fraser University, 1999.
Reeves, KA, Kropp, PR, Cairns, K. An Independent Validation Study of the SARA.
International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services, 2004.
Rettenberger, M, Eher, R. Predicting reoffense in sexual offender subtypes: a prospective validation study of the German version of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG). Sex Offend Treat
2007; 2: 1–12.
Rice, ME, Harris, GT. Men who molest their sexually immature daughters: is a special examination required?
J Abnorm Psychol
2002; 111: 329–39.
Seto, MC, Barbaree, HE. Psychopathy, treatment behavior, and sex offender recidivism. J Interpers Viol
1999; 14: 1235–48.
Snowden, RJ, Gray, NS, Taylor, J, MacCulloch, MJ. Actuarial prediction of violent recidivism in mentally disordered offenders. Psychol Med
2007; 37: 1539–49.
Snowden, RJ, Gray, NS, Taylor, J, Fitzgerald, S. Assessing risk of future violence among forensic psychiatric inpatients with the Classification of Violence Risk (COVR). Psychiatr Serv
2009; 60: 1522–6.
Viljoen, JL, Scalora, M, Cuadra, L, Bader, S, Chavez, V, Ullman, D, et al.
Assessing risk for violence in adolescents who have sexually offended: a comparison of the J-SOAP-II, J-SORRAT-II, and SAVRY. Crim Justice Behav
2008; 35: 5–23.
Walkington, Z, O'Keeffe, C, Thomas, S. Predicting Violence Recidivism in Violent Juveniles: A UK Trial. HM Prison Service, 2006.
Wormith, JS, Olver, ME, Stevenson, HE, Girard, L. The long-term prediction of offender recidivism using diagnostic, personality, and risk/need approaches to offender assessment. Psychol Serv
2007; 4: 287–305.
Szmukler, G. Violence risk prediction in practice. Br J Psychiatry
2001; 178: 84–5.
Fazel, S, Singh, JP, Doll, H, Grann, M. The prediction of violence and antisocial behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the utility of risk assessment instruments in 73 samples involving 24,827 individuals. BMJ
2012; 345: e4692.
Eastman, N, Adshead, G, Fox, S, Latham, R, Whyte, S. Forensic Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, 2012.
Bayes, T, Price, R. An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances. Phil Trans Royal Society London
1763, 53: 370–418.
Arkes, HR. Impediments to accurate clinical judgment and possible ways to minimize their impact. J Consult Clin Psychol
1981; 49: 323–30.
Arkes, HR. Costs and benefits of judgment errors: implications for debiasing. Psychol Bull
1991; 110: 486–98.
Guy, LS. Performance Indicators of the Structured Professional Judgment Approach for Assessing Risk for Violence to Others: A Meta-analytic Survey. Simon Fraser University, 2008.
Hilton, N, Carter, A, Harris, G, Sharpe, A. Does using nonnumerical terms to describe risk aid violence risk communication?
J Interpers Viol
2008; 23: 171–88.
Lidz, C, Mulvey, E, Gardner, W. The accuracy of predictions of violence to others. JAMA
1993; 269: 1007–11.
McNiel, DE, Binder, RL. Correlates of accuracy in the assessment of psychiatric inpatients' risk of violence. Am J Psychiatry
1995; 152: 901–6.
Rabinowitz, J, Garelik-Wyler, R. Accuracy and confidence in clinical assessment of psychiatric inpatients risk of violence. Int J Law Psychiatry
1999; 22: 99–106.
Dean, K, Walsh, E, Moran, P, Tyrer, P, Creed, F, Byford, S, et al.
Violence in women with psychosis in the community: prospective study. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 188: 264–70.
Singh, JP, Serper, M, Reinharth, J, Fazel, S. Structured assessment of violence risk in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders: a systematic review of the validity, reliability, and item content of 10 available instruments. Schizophr Bull
2011; 37: 899–912.
Tversky, A, Kahneman, D. Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science
1974; 185: 1124–31.