Bowers, L, Park, A. Special observation in the care of psychiatric in-patients: a literature review. Issues Ment Health Nurs
2001; 22: 769–86.
Goh, SE, Salmons, PH, Whittington, RM. Hospital suicides: are there preventable factors? Profile of the psychiatric hospital suicide. Br J Psychiatry
1989; 154: 247–9.
Cutcliffe, J, Barker, P. Considering the care of the suicidal client and the case for ‘engagement and inspiring hope’ or ‘observations’. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs
2002; 9: 611–21.
Gournay, K, Bowers, L. Suicide and self-harm in in-patient psychiatric units: a study of nursing issues in 31 cases. J Adv Nurs
2000; 32: 124–31.
National Confidential Inquiry. Avoidable Deaths: Five Year Report of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. University of Manchester, 2006.
Bowers, L, Jarrett, M, Clark, N, Kiyimba, F, McFarlane, L. Absconding: nurses' views and reactions. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs
1999; 6: 219–24.
Bowers, L, Simpson, A, Alexander, J. Patient-staff conflict. Results of a survey on acute psychiatric wards. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2003; 38: 402–8.
Bongar, B. The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care. American Psychiatric Association, 1991.
Bowers, L, Douzenis, A, Galeazzi, G, Forghieri, M, Tsopelas, C, Simpson, A, Allan, T. Disruptive and dangerous behaviour by patients on acute psychiatric wards in three European centres. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2005; 40: 822–8.
Bowers, L, Flood, C, Brennan, G, LiPang, M, Oladapo, P. Preliminary outcomes of a trial to reduce conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards: city nurses. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs
2006; 13, 165–72.
Bowers, L, Allan, T. The Attitude to Personality Disorder Questionnaire: psychometric properties and results. J Personal Disord
2006; 20: 281–93.
Moos, R. Ward Atmosphere Scale Manual. Consulting Psychologists Press, 1974.
Bass, B, Avolio, B. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Mind Garden, 1995.
Anderson, N, West, M. Team Climate Inventory (TCI): User's Guide. nferNelson, 1999.
Maslach, C, Jackson, S. The Maslach Burnout Inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, 1981.
Bowers, L, Simpson, A, Alexander, J, Ryan, C, Carr-Walker, P. Cultures of psychiatry and the professional socialization process: the case of containment methods for disturbed patients. Nurse Educ Today
2004; 24: 435–42.
Bowers, L, Whittington, R, Nolan, P, Parkin, D, Curtis, S, Bhui, K, Hackney, D, Allan, A, Simpson, A, Flood, C. The City 128 Study of Observation and Outcomes on Acute Psychiatric Wards. Report to the NHS SDO Programme. TSO (The Stationery Office), 2007.
Noble, M, Wright, G, Dibben, C, Smith, G, McLennan, D, Anttila, C, Barnes, H, Covizzi, I, Mokhtar, C, Noble, M, Avenell, D, Gardner, J, Lloyd, M. The English Indices of Deprivation 2004. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2004.
Congdon, P. Suicide and parasuicide in London: a small-area study. Urban Stud
1996; 33: 137–58.
Whitley, E, Gunnell, D, Dorling, D, Davey-Smith, G. Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty, and suicide. BMJ
1999; 319: 1034–7.
Ukoumunne, OC, Gulliford, M, Chinn, S, Sterne, J, Burney, P. Methods for evaluating area-wide and organisation-based interventions in health and health care: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess
1999; 3: iii–92.
Kiely, J. Some conceptual problems in multivariable analysis of perinatal mortality. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
1991; 5: 243–57.
Goldstein, H, Browne, W, Rasbash, J. Partitioning variation in multilevel models. Understanding Stat
2007; 1: 223–31.
Bowers, L, Gournay, K, Duffy, D. Suicide and self-harm in inpatient psychiatric units: a national survey of observation policies. J Adv Nurs
2000; 32: 437–44.
Richmond, I, Dandridge, L, Jones, K. Changing nursing practice to prevent elopement. J Nurs Care Qual
1991; 6: 73–81.
Moran, JC. An alternative to constant observation: the behavioural checklist. perspectives in psychiatric care. J Nurs Psychotherapists
1979; 17: 114–7.
Bowers, L, Simpson, A, Alexander, J, Ryan, C, Carr-Walker, P. Student psychiatric nurses' approval of containment measures: relationship to perception of aggression and attitudes to personality disorder. Int J Nurs Stud
2007; 44: 357–64.
Department of Health. Safer Services. National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. TSO (The Stationery Office), 1999.
Bowers, L. Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder: Response and Role of the Psychiatric Team. Routledge, 2002.
Morgan, HG, Priest, P. Suicide and other unexpected deaths among psychiatric in-patients. The Bristol confidential inquiry. Br J Psychiatry
1991; 158: 368–74.
Neeleman, J, Wilson-Jones, C, Wessely, S. Ethnic density and deliberate self-harm: small area study in south-east London. J Epidemiol Community Health
2001; 55: 85–90.
Johnston, A, Cooper, J, Webb, R, Kapur, N. Individual- and area-level predictors of self-harm repetition. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 189: 416–21.
Rehkopf, D, Buka, S. The association between suicide and the socio-economic characteristics of geographical areas. Psychol Med
2006; 36: 145–57.
Gunnell, D, Peters, T, Kammerling, R, Brooks, J. Relation between parasuicide, suicide, psychiatric admissions, and socio-economic deprivation. BMJ
1995; 311: 226–30.
Hawton, K, Harris, L, Hodder, K, Simkin, S, Gunnell, D. The influence of the economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide: an ecological and person-based study. Psychol Med
2001; 31: 827–36.
Agerbo, E, Mortensen, P, Eriksson, T, Qin, P, Westergaard-Nielsen, N. Risk of suicide in relation to income level in people admitted to hospital with mental illness: nested case control study. BMJ
2001; 322: 334–5.
Bennewith, O, Gunnell, D, Peters, T, Hawton, K, House, A. Variations in the hospital management of self-harm in adults in England: observational study. BMJ
2004; 328: 1108–9.
Bowers, L, Allan, T, Simpson, A, Nijman, H, Warren, J. Adverse incidents, patient flow and nursing workforce variables on acute psychiatric wards: The Tompkins Acute Ward Study. Int J Soc Psychiatry
2005; 53: 75–84.
Department of Health. Safety First. Five-Year Report of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. Department of Health, 2001.
King, EA, Baldwin, DS, Sinclair, JMA, Baker, NG, Campbell, MJ, Thompson, C. The Wessex Recent In-Patient Suicide Study, I. Case–control study of 234 recently discharged psychiatric patient suicides. Br J Psychiatry
2001; 178: 531–6.
Healthcare Commission. Count Me In 2007. The Results of the 2007 National Census of Inpatients in Mental Health and Learning Disability Services in England and Wales. Healthcare Commission, 2007.