Skip to main content Accessibility help

A Self-Rating Scale for Measuring Neuroleptic Side-Effects: Validation in a Group of Schizophrenic Patients

  • Jennifer C. Day (a1), Graham Wood (a1), Mike Dewey (a2) and Richard P. Bentall (a3)



A study was conducted to validate a comprehensive self-rating scale for measuring side-effects of neuroleptic drugs.


The Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS), which includes ‘red herring’ items, was twice administered to 50 DSM–III–R schizophrenic patients, who were also interviewed using the UKU side-effect rating scale; 50 unmedicated controls also completed the LUNSERS.


The test-retest reliability of the LUNSERS was good (r = 0.811, P< 0.001) as was its concurrent validity against the UKU (r = 0.828, P< 0.001). Scores correlated with chlorpromazine equivalent doses (r = 0.310, P< 0.02). ROC analysis demonstrated that the scale discriminated between patients and non-medicated controls, who scored differently for real side-effects but not for ‘red herring’ items.


The LUNSERS is an efficient, reliable and valid method of assessing neuroleptic side-effects.


Corresponding author

Professor Bentall, Department of Clinical Psychology, Whelan Building, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX


Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised) (DSM–III–R). Washington, DC: APA.
Barnes, T. R. E. (1989) A rating scale for drug-induced akathisia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 672676.
Bartko, G., Herczeg, I. & Zador, G. (1988) Clinical sympatomatology and drug compliance in schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 77, 7476.
Frank, A. F. & Gunderson, J. G. (1990) The role of the therapeutic alliance in the treatment of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 228236.
Green, J. H. (1988) Frequent rehospitalisation and non-compliance with treatment. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 39, 963966.
Hogan, T. P., Awad, A. G. & Eastwood, R. (1983) A self-report scale predictive of drug compliance in schizophrenics. Psychological Medicine, 13, 177183.
Jolley, A. G., Hirsch, S. R., Morrison, E., et al (1990) Trial of brief intermittent neuroleptic prophylaxis for selected schizophrenic outpatients: clinical and social outcome at two years. British Medical Journal, 301, 837842.
Lingjaerde, O., Ahlfors, V. G., Dech, P., et al (1987) The UKU side effect rating scale for psychotropic drugs and a cross sectional study of side effects in neuroleptic treated patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 334, 76.
Nelson, A. (1975) Drug default among schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 32, 12371242.
Simpson, G. M. & Angus, J. W. S. (1970) A rating scale for extrapyramidal side effects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 212, 1119.
Swets, J. A. & Pickett, R. M. (1982) Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems; Methods from Signal Detection Theory. New York: Academic Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

A Self-Rating Scale for Measuring Neuroleptic Side-Effects: Validation in a Group of Schizophrenic Patients

  • Jennifer C. Day (a1), Graham Wood (a1), Mike Dewey (a2) and Richard P. Bentall (a3)
Submit a response


No eLetters have been published for this article.


Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *