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Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: Population-based nested case–control study

  • Carlene King (a1), Jane Senior (a1), Roger T. Webb (a1), Tim Millar (a1), Mary Piper (a2), Alison Pearsall (a1), Naomi Humber (a1), Louis Appleby (a1) and Jenny Shaw (a1)...

Summary

The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case–control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.

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Copyright

This is an open access paper distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence.

Corresponding author

Jenny Shaw, 2.317 Jean McFarlane Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Email: Jennifer.J.Shaw@manchester.ac.uk

Footnotes

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Declaration of interest

M.P. was Senior Public Health Consultant in Offender Health at The Department of Health in England at the time of funding.

Footnotes

References

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1 Sattar, G. Rates and Causes of Death among Prisoners and Offenders Under Community Supervision. Home Office Research Study No. 231. Home Office, 2001.
2 Webb, RT, Qin, P, Stevens, H, Mortensen, P, Appleby, L, Shaw, J. National study of suicide in all people with a criminal justice history. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011; 68: 591–9.
3 Linsley, KR, Johnson, N, Martin, J. Police contact within 3 months of suicide and associated health service contact. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 190: 170–1.
4 World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO, 1992.
5 Clayton, D, Hills, M. Statistical Models in Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, 1993.
6 Wachoider, S, Silverman, DT, McLaughlin, JK, Mandel, SJ. Selection of controls in case-control studies III. Design options. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 1042–50.
7 Independent Police Complaints Commission. Deaths During or Following Police Contact: Statistics for England and Wales: Time Series Tables 2004/05 to 2013. Independent Advisory Panel on Deaths in Custody, 2014.
8 Howard League. Deaths on Probation: An Analysis of Data Regarding People Dying under Probation Supervision. The Howard League for Penal Reform, 2012.
9 McNulty, C, Wardle, J. Adult disclosure of sexual abuse: a primary cause of psychological distress? Child Abuse Negl 1994; 18: 549–55.
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The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
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Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: Population-based nested case–control study

  • Carlene King (a1), Jane Senior (a1), Roger T. Webb (a1), Tim Millar (a1), Mary Piper (a2), Alison Pearsall (a1), Naomi Humber (a1), Louis Appleby (a1) and Jenny Shaw (a1)...
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