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Validation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for use with adolescents

  • David White (a1), Chris Leach (a2), Ruth Sims (a3), Michelle Atkinson (a4) and David Cottrell (a4)...

Abstract

Background

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), developed for use with adults, has potential with adolescents.

Aims

To test the HADS's validity with adolescents.

Method

The HADS was given to 248 schoolchildren and to 48 psychiatric outpatients and 38 deliberate self-harm inpatients aged 12–17, and validated against ICD–10 diagnoses for the out-patients.

Results

The HADS has adequate test-retest reliability and factor structure, and discriminates between adolescents diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorders and those without these diagnoses.

Conclusions

The psychometric properties of the HADS and its shortness make it useful for screening and in clinical settings with adolescents.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Dr David White, Wakefield and Pontefract Community Health NHS Trust, QED Department, Trust HQ, Fieldhead. Ouchthorpe Lane, Wakefield WFI 3 SP

Footnotes

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Declaration of interest

This work was supported by a grant from the National Health Service Executive, Northern and Yorkshire Region.

Footnotes

References

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Bedford, A., de Pauw, K. & Grant, E. (1997) The structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): an appraisal with normal psychiatric and medical patient subjects, Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 473478.
Berard, R., Berard, M. F. & Ahmed, N. (1995) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening instrument in a depressed adolescent and young adult population. International Journal of Adolescent Mediane and Health, 8, 157166.
Garrison, C. Z., Addy, C. L., Jackcson, K. L., et al (1991) The CES–D as a screen for depression and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 636641
Moorey, S., Greer, S., Watson, M., et al (1991) The factor structure and factor stability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with cancer. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 255259.
Roberts, R. E., Lewinsohn, P. M. & Seeley, J. R. (1991) Screening for adolescent depression: a comparison of depression scales. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 5866.
Rutter, M. & Graham, P. (1968) The reliability and validity of the psychiatric assessment of the child: I. Interview with the child. British Journal of Psychiotry, 114, 563579.
World Health Organization (1986) The Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD–10) Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva: WHO.
Zigmond, A. S. & Snalth, R. P. (1983) The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361370.

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Validation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for use with adolescents

  • David White (a1), Chris Leach (a2), Ruth Sims (a3), Michelle Atkinson (a4) and David Cottrell (a4)...
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