American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn, text revision)
Demler, O, et al.
The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United
States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey
Replication. Am J Psychiatry
2006; 163: 716–23.
Jensen, PS, et al.
The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated
for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study. J Am
Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
Lashau, EC, et al.
Clinical and functional outcome of childhood
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later.
Arch Gen Psychiatry
2012; 69: 1295–303.
Treatment of adult ADHD: is current knowledge useful for
J Neuropsychiatric Dis Treat
2008; 4: 177–86.
Alternative and controversial treatments for
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr
Clin North Am
1999; 46: 977–92.
Where to with treatment for ADHD?
Curr Med Res Opin
2011; 27 (suppl 2):
Effects of artificial food colorings in children with
hyperactive symptoms: a critical review and results of a controlled
study. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1981; 38: 714–8.
Megavitamins for minimal brain dysfunction: a
placebo-controlled study. JAMA
1978; 240: 2642–3.
Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, restriction diet, and
synthetic food color additives. J Am Acad Child
Piek, JP, Oddy, WH
ADHD is associated with a ‘Western’ dietary pattern in
adolescents. J Atten Disord
2011; 15: 403–11.
Pereira, RR, et al.
Effects of a restricted elimination diet on the behaviour of
children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (INCA study): a
randomised controlled trial. Lancet
Artificial food colors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity
symptoms: conclusions to dye for.
Young, RM, Howe, PRC
Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and
behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a
randomized controlled trial. Nutrition
2012; 28: 670–7.
Eaglesfield, GD, Waber, DP
Infant malnutrition is associated with persisting attention
deficits in middle adulthood. J Nutr
2012; 142: 788–94.
Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of
ADHD. Expert Rev Neurother
2009; 9: 461–76.
Database analysis of adults with bipolar disorder consuming a
multinutrient formula. Clin Med
Maggini, S, et al.
Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and
minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy
males. Psychopharmacology (Berl)
Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults
with autism. BMC Pediatr
2011; 11: 111.
High-dose vitamin therapy stimulates variant enzymes with
decreased coenzyme binding affinity (increased Km): relevance to genetic
disease and polymorphisms. Am J Clin
2002; 75: 616–58.
Vitamins, minerals, and mood. Psychol
2007; 133: 747–60.
Is a “Mitochondrial Psychiatry” in the future? A
review. Cur Psychiatry Rev
2005; 1: 255–71.
Fasano, A, Kelly, D
Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of Celiac disease
and gluten sensitivity. Psychiatr Q
Deger, O, et al.
Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the
treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
2004; 28: 181–90.
Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder in children. Pediatr
2008; 38: 20–6.
Fernandez, S, et al.
Zinc for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:
placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial alone and combined with
amphetamine. J Child Adolesc
Adar Levine, A
A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of
children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.
J Atten Disord
2010; 14: 281–91.
Comprehensive approach to treating autism and
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prepilot
study. J Altern Complement Med
2007; 13: 1091–7.
Field, CJ, Kolb, B
Improved mood and behavior during treatment with a
mineral-vitamin supplement: an open-label case series of
children. J Child Adolesc
2004; 14: 115–22.
Effect of micronutrients on behavior and mood in adults with
ADHD: evidence from an 8-week open label trial with natural
extension. J Atten Disord
Database analysis of children and adolescents with bipolar
disorder consuming a multinutrient formula. BMC
2010; 10: 74.
Successful treatment of bipolar disorder II and ADHD with a
micronutrient formula: a case study. CNS
2010; 15: 289–95.
Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement
treated children with AD/HD. Altern Med
2003; 8: 319–30.
Burgess, E, Kaplan, BJ
Systematic review of safety and tolerability of a complex
micronutrient formula used in mental health. BMC
2011; 11: 62.
Broad spectrum micronutrient formulas for the treatment of
psychiatric symptoms: a systematic review. Expert
Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID):
Technical Manual. MHS,
Moreci, P, et al.
Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for
school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial
reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child
1997; 36: 980–7.
Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS).
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
2003; 18: 431–7.
Conners' Rating Scales – Revised: Technical Manual.
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV–TR Axis I Disorders:
Research Version, Patient Edition (SCID–I/P).
Biometrics Research Department, New York State
ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology.
Institute for Mental Health,
A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to
change. Br J Psychiatry
1979; 134: 382–9.
Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Technical Manual.
Judd, LL, et al.
A brief assessment of psychosocial functioning of subjects
with bipolar I disorder: the LIFE-RIFT. Longitudinal Interval Follow-up
Evaluation-Range Impaired Functioning Tool. J
Nerv Ment Dis
2000; 188: 805–12.
Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors. The role
of social norms and personal agency. Health
2003; 22: 189–98.
The Penn Helping Alliance Scales.
The Psychotherapeutic Process: A Research Handbook
Pinsof, WM): 325–66. Guilford Press
Connor, DF, et al.
Bupropion XL in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Manual for the WAIS-III. Psychological
Ransom, M, Ongley, P
The New Zealand Socioeconomic Index of Occupational Status
(NZSEI). Statistics New
WRAT3 Administration Manual. Wide
Grade scores of the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression and the
Clinical Anxiety Scales. Br J Psychiatry
Fegert, JM, Weinmann, S
Limits of meta-analysis: Methylphenidate in the treatment of
adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J
2009; 23: 733–44.
Do vitamins or minerals (apart from lithium) have
J Clin Psychiatry
2001; 62: 933–5.
McMullen, DM, Crawford, SG
Effective mood stabilization with a chelated mineral
supplement: an open-label trial in bipolar disorder.
J Clin Psychiatry
2001; 62: 936–44.
Paul, S, Kaplan, BJ
A naturalistic case-control study of micronutrients versus
standard medication management in autism. J Child
Feasibility of a nutritional supplement as treatment for
pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders. J Altern
2012; 18: 678–85.
Gordon, H, Boggis, A
Shaken but unstirred? Effects of micronutrients on stress and
trauma after an earthquake: RCT evidence comparing formulas and
doses. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp
2012; 27: 440–54.
Sachs, GS, Rosenbaum, JF
Assuring that double-blind is blind.
Am J Psychiatry
2010; 167: 250–2.
Scholey, AB, et al.
The effect of multivitamin supplementation on mood and stress
in healthy older men. Hum
2011; 26: 560–7.
Effect of micronutrient supplementation on mood in nursing
home residents. Gerontology
2008; 54: 292–9.
Henderson, S, et al.
The initial health-system response to the earthquake in
Christchurch, New Zealand, in February, 2011.
2012; 379: 2109–15.
Earthquakes on the mind. Hum
2012; 54: 189–94.
A balanced approach to nutrition for health: the need for
biologically essential minerals and vitamins. J
Am Diet Assoc
1994; 94: 1259–62.
Single bullet madness – why do we continue to perpetuate this
Br J Psychiatry
2013; 203: 154–5.
Nutrients and botanicals for treatment of stress: adrenal
fatigue, neurotransmitter imbalance, anxiety, and restless
sleep. Altern Med Rev
2009; 14: 114–40.
Prolactin elevation with antipsychotic medications:
mechanisms of action and clinical consequences. J
2002; 63 (suppl 4):
A possible biological mechanism for the B Vitamins altering
behaviour in ADHD. Pharm Med
Karadag, H, et al.
Effects of zinc and ferritin levels on parent and teacher
reported symptom scores in attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
2010; 41: 441–7.
Australian Government. Nutrient Reference Values
for Australia and New Zealand: Including Recommended Dietary
Intakes. National Health and Medical Research
The influence of micronutrients on cognitive function and
performance. J Int Med Res
Birge, SJ, Morris, JC
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse
cognitive performance in older adults. Am J
2006; 14: 1032–40.
Folate for depressive disorders: systematic review and
meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J
2004; 18: 251–6.
Carney, MWP, Reynolds, EH
Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine metabolism
in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg
2000; 69: 228–32.
Schubert, T, et al.
Psychiatric comorbidity and functional impairment in a
clinically referred sample of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD). Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin
2007; 257: 371–7.
Malek, A, Mohammadzadeh, S
Double-blind controlled trial of venlafaxine for treatment of
adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp
Gerard, K, et al.
Efficacy of a mixed amphetamine salts compound in adults with
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch
2001; 58: 775–82.
Olafsdottir, H, et al.
Cognitive behaviour therapy in medication-treated adults with
ADHD and persistent symptoms: a randomized controlled
trial. BMC Psychiatry
2011; 11; 116.
Holtmann, M, et al.
Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review
and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and
psychological treatments. Am J
2013; 170: 275–89.
Eves, A, Crowder, MJ
Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential
fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners.
Randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J
2002; 181: 22–8.
The case against antipsychotic drugs: a 50-year record of
doing more harm than good. Med
Long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs: the
spectacular achievements of propaganda.
2002; 71: 127–32.
Excessive mood elevation and behavioral activation with
antidepressant treatment of juvenile depressive and anxiety disorders: a
systematic review. Psychother Psychosom
2013; 82: 132–41.
What are the cognitive effects of stimulant medications?
Emphasis on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD). Neurosci Biobehav Rev
2010; 34: 1256–66.
Rebalancing academic psychiatry: why it needs to happen – and
soon. Br J Psychiatry
2012; 201: 421–2.