Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-frvt8 Total loading time: 0.647 Render date: 2022-10-03T09:34:33.446Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

A survey of CBT supervision in the UK: methods, satisfaction and training, as viewed by a selected sample of CBT supervision leaders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 October 2016

Robert P. Reiser*
Affiliation:
Reiser Healthcare Consulting, Kentfield, CA, USA
Derek L. Milne
Affiliation:
School of Psychology, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK
*
*Author for correspondence: Dr R. P. Reiser, Reiser Healthcare Consulting, 1036 Sir Francis Drake Boulevard, Suite 13, Kentfield, CA, USA, 94904 (email: robert.reiser@gmail.com).

Abstract

Internationally, clinical supervision has been increasingly recognized as a core competency and an essential requirement for clinical training. Over the past 10 years, frameworks for supervision competencies have been developed and promulgated in several countries, notably the UK, USA and Australia. But what is the current status of the actual practice of CBT supervision in the UK? We conducted an internet survey with a purposive sample of n=110 accredited British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy (BABCP) supervisors and trainers (a 44% response rate), selected for their assumed expertise. The results were consistent with past surveys of Townend et al., indicating that the most frequently reported supervision methods tended to reflect many of the recommendations in widely disseminated supervision competency frameworks and recognized best practice statements. Overall, these CBT supervision leaders reported using an impressively wide range of methods, including much more frequent use of role-play, therapy recordings, and direct observation than reported in the Townend et al. surveys or in observational studies. Although satisfied in their supervisory role, respondents indicated the need for improved CBT supervisor training resources, with significant interest in developing competence instruments and group supervision methods. In conclusion, at least for this small sample of CBT supervision leaders in the UK, practice reflects international progress, but training resources are sought to maintain momentum.

Type
Special Issue: International Developments in Supporting and Developing CBT Supervisors
Copyright
Copyright © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Recommended follow-up reading

Liese, BS, Beck, JS (1997). Cognitive therapy supervision. In: The Wiley Handbook of Psychotherapy Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E.), pp. 114133. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
Milne, D, Reiser, R (2012). A rationale for evidence-based clinical supervision. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 42, 139149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Padesky, CA (1996). Developing cognitive therapist competency: teaching and supervision models. In: Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy (ed. Salkovskis, P. M.), pp. 266292. London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Reiser, R (2014). Supervising cognitive behavioral therapy. In: The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 493597. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiser, R, Milne, DL (2012). Supervising cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: pressing needs, impressing possibilities. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 42, 161171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

American Psychological Association (APA) (2015). Guidelines for clinical supervision in health service psychology. American Psychologist 70, 3346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Armstrong, P, Freeston, M (2006).Conceptualizing and formulating cognitive therapy supervision. In: Case Formulation in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (ed. Tarrier, N.), pp. 349371. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
BABCP (2012 a). Minimum training standards for the practice of cognitive behavioural therapy (https://www.babcp.com/files/Minimum-Training-Standards-V6-0413.pdf). Accessed 6 February 2015.Google Scholar
Beidas, RS, Kendall, PC (2010). Training therapists in evidence-based practice: a critical review of studies from a systems-contextual perspective. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 17, 130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blackburn, IM, James, IA, Milne, DL, Baker, C, Standart, S, Garland, A, Reichelt, F (2001). The revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R): psychometric properties. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 29, 431446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonferroni, CE (1936). Statistical theory of classification and calculation of the probability. Publication of the R Institute Superiore of the Science of Economy and Commerce of Florence 8, 362.Google Scholar
Carroll, KM, Nuro, KF (2002). One size cannot fit all: a stage model for psychotherapy manual development. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice 9, 396406.Google Scholar
Costello, AB, Osborne, WO (2005). Exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 7, 19.Google Scholar
Culloty, T, Milne, DL, Sheikh, AI (2010). Evaluating the training of clinical supervisors: a pilot study using the fidelity framework. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist 3, 132144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falender, CA, Erickson Cornish, JA, Goodyear, R, Hatcher, R, Kaslow, NJ, Leventhal, G, Shafranske, E, Sigmon, ST, Stoltenberg, C, Grus, C (2004). Defining competencies in psychology supervision: a consensus statement. Journal of Clinical Psychology 60, 771785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fabrigar, LR, Wegener, DT, MacCallum, RC, Strahan, EJ (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods 4, 272299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gabbay, MB, Kiemle, G, Maguire, C (1999). Clinical supervision for clinical psychologists: existing provision and unmet needs. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 6, 404412.3.0.CO;2-B>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gonsalvez, CJ, Milne, DL (2010). Clinical supervisor training in Australia: a review of current problems and possible solutions. Australian Psychologist 45, 233242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grol, R, Grimshaw, J (2003). From best evidence to best practice: effective implementation of change in patients'care. Lancet 362, 12251230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gyani, A, Shafran, R, Layard, R, Clark, DM (2013). Enhancing recovery rates: lessons from year one of IAPT. Behaviour Research and Therapy 51, 597606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinkin, TR (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods 1, 104121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) (2011). Guidance for Commissioning IAPT Supervisor Training. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
Kaslow, NJ, Borden, KA, Collins, FL, Forrest, L, Illfelder-Kaye, J, Nelson, PD, Rallo, JS, Vasquez, MJT, Willmuth, ME (2004). Competencies conference: future directions in education and credentialing in professional psychology. Journal of Clinical Psychology 60, 699712.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klejnak, D (2012). Pilot survey of cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy (CBT) supervisors, to determine their supervisory practice and learning needs. European Psychiatry 27, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Layard, R, Clark, D (2014). Thrive: The Power of Evidence-based Psychological Therapies. Penguin, UK.Google Scholar
Liese, BS, Beck, JS (1997). Cognitive therapy supervision. In: The Wiley Handbook of Psychotherapy Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 114133. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
McHugh, RK, Barlow, DH (2010). The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: a review of current efforts. American Psychologist 65, 7384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milne, D (2009). Evidence-based Clinical Supervision. Chichester: BPS Blackwell.Google Scholar
Milne, D, Dunkerley, C (2010). Towards evidence-based clinical supervision: the development and evaluation of four CBT guidelines. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist 3, 4357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milne, DL (2008). CBT supervision: from reflexivity to specialization. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 36, 779786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milne, DL (2010). Can we enhance the training of clinical supervisors? A national pilot study of an evidence-based approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 17, 321328.Google ScholarPubMed
Milne, DL, Reiser, R (2014). SAGE: a scale for rating competence in CBT supervision. In: The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 402415. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milne, DL, Reiser, RP, Cliffe, T (2013). An n = 1 evaluation of enhanced CBT supervision. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy 41, 210220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milne, DL, Sheikh, AI, Pattison, S, Wilkinson, A (2011). Evidence-based training for clinical supervisors: a systematic review of 11 controlled studies. The Clinical Supervisor 30, 5371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olds, K, Hawkins, R (2014). Precursors to measuring outcomes in clinical supervision: a thematic analysis. Training & Education in Professional Psychology. doi.org/10.1037/tep0000034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Padesky, CA (1996). Developing cognitive therapist competency: teaching and supervision models. In: Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy (ed. Salkovskis, P. M.), pp. 266292. London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Pilling, S, Roth, AD (2014). The competent clinical supervisor. In: The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 2037. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rakovshik, SG, McManus, F (2010). Establishing evidence-based training in CBT: a review of current empirical findings and theoretical guidance. Clinical Psychology Review 30, 496516.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reiser, R (2014) Supervising cognitive behavioral therapy. In: The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 493517. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reiser, R, Milne, DL (2012). Supervising cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: pressing needs, impressing possibilities. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 42, 161171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richards, DA (2014). Clinical case-management supervision: using clinical outcome monitoring and therapy progress feedback to drive supervision. In: The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 518529. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roth, A, Pilling, S (2008). A competence framework for the supervision of psychological therapies (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/clinical-psychology/CORE/supervision_framework.htm). Accessed 30 December 2011.Google Scholar
Roth, AD, Pilling, S, Turner, J (2010). Therapist training and supervision in clinical trials: implications for clinical practice. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 38, 291302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teddlie, C, Yu, F (2007). Mixed methods sampling: a typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1, 77100.Google Scholar
Townend, M, Iannetta, L, Freeston, MH (2002). Clinical supervision in practice: a survey of UK cognitive-behavioural psychotherapists accredited by the BABCP. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy 30, 485500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Townend, M, Iannetta, L, Freeston, M, Hayes, J (2007). Supervision practices of UK cognitive-behavioural psychotherapists, 2001 and 2006. Paper presented at the 5th World Congress of Behavioural & Cognitive Therapies, Barcelona, 11–14 July.Google Scholar
Turpin, G (2012). The impact of recent NHS policy on supervision in clinical psychology. In: Supervision and Clinical Psychology, 2nd edn (ed. Fleming, I. & Steen, L.), pp. 2346. Hove: Routledge.Google Scholar
Watkins, CE, Milne, DL (2014). Clinical supervision at the international crossroads: current status and future directions. In: The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 673696. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, CE, Wang CD, (2014). On the education of clinical supervisors. In: The Wiley International Handbook of Clinical Supervision (ed. Watkins, C. E. & Milne, D. L.), pp. 177203. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.
11
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A survey of CBT supervision in the UK: methods, satisfaction and training, as viewed by a selected sample of CBT supervision leaders
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

A survey of CBT supervision in the UK: methods, satisfaction and training, as viewed by a selected sample of CBT supervision leaders
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

A survey of CBT supervision in the UK: methods, satisfaction and training, as viewed by a selected sample of CBT supervision leaders
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *