Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Stigma creating stigma: a vicious circle

  • Sokratis Dinos (a1)
Summary

Despite anti-stigma campaigns in the UK in recent years, the experiences of people with mental health problems indicate that stigma is still a major problem. The stigma of being a member of a socially excluded group, based on socioeconomic, personal or cultural/ethnic characteristics, should be considered alongside the stigma of mental illness. Membership of a stigmatised group (not based on mental illness) is often itself a risk factor for developing mental health problems. This article discusses the experiences of people from Black and minority ethnic and lesbian, gay and bisexual groups to explore how stigma can create more stigma.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Stigma creating stigma: a vicious circle
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Stigma creating stigma: a vicious circle
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Stigma creating stigma: a vicious circle
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Sokratis Dinos (sokratisdinos@bpp.com)
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Department of Health. New Horizons: A Shared Vision for Mental Health. Department of Health, 2009 (http://www.apho.org.uk/resource/browse.aspx?RID=83907).
2 Dinos, S, Stevens, S, Serfaty, M, Weich, S, King, M. Stigma: the feelings and experiences of 46 people with mental illness. Qualitative study. Br J Psychiatry 2004; 184: 176–81.
3 Howe, L, Tickle, A, Brown, I. ‘Schizophrenia is a dirty word’: service users' experiences of receiving a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Bull 2014; 38: 15.
5 Evans-Lacko, S, Henderson, C, Thornicroft, G. Public knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding people with mental illness in England 2009–2012. Br J Psychiatry 2013; 202: s5157.
6 Bhui, K, Dinos, S. Preventive psychiatry: a paradigm to improve population mental health and well-being. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 198: 417–9.
7 Link, BG, Struening, EL, Neese-Todd, S, Asmussen, A, Phelan, JC. Stigma as a barrier to recovery: the consequences of stigma for the self-esteem of people with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52: 1621–6.
8 Corrigan, PW. Mental health stigma as social attribution: implications for research methods and attitude change. Clin Psychol 2000; 7: 4867.
9 Angermeyer, MC, Beck, M, Dietrich, S, Holzinger, A. The stigma of mental illness: patients' anticipations and experiences. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2004; 50: 153–62.
10 Sirey, JA, Bruce, ML, Alexopoulos, GS, Perlick, DA, Friedman, SJ, Meyers, BS. Stigma as a barrier to recovery: perceived stigma and patient-rated severity of illness as predictors of antidepressant drug adherence. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52: 1615–20.
11 Rosenfield, S. Labeling mental illness: the effects of received services and perceived stigma on life satisfaction. Am Sociol Rev 1997; 62: 660–72.
12 Phelan, JC, Link, BG, Stueve, A, Pescosolido, BA. Public conceptions of mental illness in 1950 and 1996: what is mental illness and is it to be feared? J Health Soc Behav 2000; 41: 188207.
13 Ritsher, JB, Phelan, JC. Internalised stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients. Psychiat Res 2004; 129: 257–65.
14 King, M, Dinos, S, Shaw, J, Watson, R, Stevens, S, Passetti, F, et al The Stigma Scale: development of a standardised measure of the stigma of mental illness. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 190: 248–54.
15 Dinos, S, Lyons, E, Finlay, WML. Does chronic illness place constraints on positive constructions of identity? Temporal comparisons and self-evaluations in people with mental illness. Soc Sci Med 2005; 60: 2239–48.
16 Kirkbride, JB, Barker, D, Cowden, F, Stamps, R, Yang, M, Jones, PB, et al Psychoses, ethnicity and socio-economic status. Br J Psychiatry 2008; 193: 1824.
17 Fearon, P, Morgan, C. Environmental factors in schizophrenia: the role of migrant studies. Schizophr Bull 2006; 32: 405–8.
18 McManus, S, Meltzer, H, Brugha, T, Bebbington, P, Jenkins, R. Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England: Results of a Household Survey. The Health & Social Care Information Centre, Social Care Statistics, 2007.
19 Bhui, K, Mckenzie, K. Rates and risk factors by ethnic group for suicides within a year of contact with mental health services in England and Wales. Psychiatr Serv 2008; 59: 414–20.
20 King, M, Semlyen, J, Tai, SS, Killaspy, H, Osborn, D, Popelyuk, D, et al A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry 2008; 8: 70.
21 Warner, J, McKeown, E, Griffin, M, Johnson, K, Ramsay, A, Cort, C, et al Rates and predictors of mental illness in gay men, lesbians and bisexual men and women: results from a survey based in England and Wales. Br J Psychiatry 2004; 185: 479–85.
22 Karlsen, S, Nazroo, J. Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups. Am J Public Health 2002; 92: 624–31.
23 Karlsen, S, Nazroo, J, McKenzie, K, Bhui, K, Weich, S. Racism, psychosis and common mental disorder among ethnic minority groups in England. Psychol Med 2005; 35: 1795–803.
24 Hunt, R, Jensen, J. The School Report: The Experiences of Young Gay People in Britain's Schools. Stonewall, 2007 (http://www.stonewall.org.uk/documents/school_report.pdf).
25 Feinstein, BA, Goldfried, MR, Davila, J. The relationship between experiences of discrimination and mental health among lesbians and gay men: an examination of internalized homonegativity and rejection sensitivity as potential mechanisms. J Consult Clin Psych 2012; 80: 917–27.
26 Choi, KH, Paul, J, Ayala, G, Boylan, R, Gregorich, SE. Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health 2013; 103: 868–74.
27 Cowan, K. Living Together: British Attitudes Towards Lesbian & Gay People. Stonewall, 2007 (http://www.stonewall.org.uk/documents/living_together.pdf).
28 Dick, S. Homophobic Hate Crime: The Gay British Crime Survey 2008. Stonewell, 2008 (http://www.stonewall.org.uk/documents/homophobic_hate_crime__final_report.pdf).
29 Bhui, K, Warfa, N, Edonya, P, McKenzie, K, Bhugra, D. Cultural competence in mental health care: a review of model evaluations. BMC Health Serv Res 2007; 7: 15.
30 King, M, Semlyen, J, Killaspy, H, Nazareth, I, Osborn, D. A Systematic Review of Research on Counselling and Psychotherapy for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender People. British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2007.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Bulletin
  • ISSN: 2053-4868
  • EISSN: 2053-4876
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 36 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 95 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 22nd July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Stigma creating stigma: a vicious circle

  • Sokratis Dinos (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *