Verrotti, A, Trotta, D, Morgese, G, Chiarelli, F.
Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis
2002; 17: 267–73.
Elharmi, M, Ferrier, B, Martin, M, Baverel, G.
Effect of valproate, sodium 2-propyl-4-pentenoate and sodium 2-propyl-2-pentoate on renal substrate uptake and ammoniagenesis in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther
1993; 266: 89–96.
McCall, M, Bourgeois, J.
Valproic acid-induced hyperammonemia: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol
2004; 24: 521–6.
Hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Medicine (Baltimore)
2002; 81: 240–9.
Carr, RB, Shrewsbury, K.
Hyperammonemia due to valproic acid in the psychiatric setting. Am J Psychiatry
2007; 164: 1020–7.
Hyperammonemia and valproic acid-induced encephalopathy. Am J Psychiatry
2007; 164: 1912–3.
Stanley, CA. Carnitine deficiency disorders in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci
2004; 1033: 42–51.
Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease (9th edn). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
Lombard, K, Olson, A, Nelson, S, Rebouche, C.
Carnitine status of lactoovovegetarians and strict vegetarians adults and children. Am J Clin Nutr
1989; 50: 301–6.
Anderson, G, Gidal, B, Hendryx, R, Awan, A, Temkin, N, Wilensky, A, et al. Decreased plasma protein binding of valproate in patients with acute head trauma. Br J Clin Pharmacol
1994; 37: 559–62.
Carlson, T, Reynolds, C, Caplan, R.
Case report: valproic acid and risperidone treatment leading to development of hyperammonemia and mania. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2007; 46: 356–61.
Kimmel, R, Irwin, S, Meyer, J.
Valproic acid-associated hyperammonemic encephalopathy: a case report from the psychiatric setting. Int Clin Psychopharmacol
2005; 20: 57–8.
Laub, MC. Nutritional influence on serum ammonia in young patients receiving sodium valproate. Epilepsia
1986; 27: 55–9.
Gidal, BE, Inglese, CM, Meyer, JF, Pitterle, ME, Antonopolous, J, Rust, RS. Diet- and valproate-induced transient hyperammonemia: effect of L-carnitine. Pediatr Neurol
1997; 16: 301–5.
Coulter, DL. Carnitine deficiency in epilepsy: risk factors and treatment. J Child Neurol
1995; 10 (suppl): s32–3.
Oechsner, M, Steen, C, Sturenburg, HJ, Kohlschutter, A.
Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy after initiation of valproate therapy in unrecognised ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1998; 64: 680–2.
Raskind, JY, El-Chaar, GM. The role of carnitine supplementation during valproic acid therapy. Ann Pharmacother
2000; 34: 630–8.
Zaccara, G, Paganini, M, Campostrini, R, Moroni, F, Valenza, T, Messori, A, et al. Effect of associated antiepileptic treatment on valproate-induced hyperammonemia. Ther Drug Monit
1985; 7: 185–90.
Warter, JM, Marescaux, C, Brandt, C, Rumbach, L, Micheletti, G, Chabrier, G.
Sodium valproate associated with phenobarbital: effects on ammonia metabolism in humans. Epilepsia
1983; 24: 628–33.
Hamer, HM, Knake, S, Schomburg, U, Rosenow, F.
Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in the presence of topiramate. Neurology
2000; 54: 230–2.
Sandson, NB, Marcucci, C, Bourke, DL, Smith-Lamacchia, R.
An interaction between aspirin and valproate: the relevance of plasma protein displacement drug-drug interactions. Am J Psychiatry
2006; 163: 1891–6.