Skip to main content

Anytime Computation of Cautious Consequences in Answer Set Programming


Query answering in Answer Set Programming (ASP) is usually solved by computing (a subset of) the cautious consequences of a logic program. This task is computationally very hard, and there are programs for which computing cautious consequences is not viable in reasonable time. However, current ASP solvers produce the (whole) set of cautious consequences only at the end of their computation. This paper reports on strategies for computing cautious consequences, also introducing anytime algorithms able to produce sound answers during the computation.

Hide All
Alviano M., Dodaro C., Faber W., Leone N., and Ricca F. 2013. WASP: A native ASP solver based on constraint learning. In LPNMR, Cabalar P. and Son T. C., Eds. LNCS, vol. 8148. Springer, 5466.
Alviano M. and Faber W. 2011. Dynamic magic sets and super-coherent answer set programs. AI Communications. IOS Press 24, 2, 125145.
Alviano M., Faber W., Leone N., Perri S., Pfeifer G., and Terracina G. 2011. The disjunctive datalog system DLV. In Datalog 2.0, Gottlob G., Ed. Vol. 6702. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 282301.
Arenas M., Bertossi L. E., and Chomicki J. 2003. Answer sets for consistent query answering in inconsistent databases. Theory and Practice of Logic Programming 3, 4–5, 393424.
Baral C. 2003. Knowledge Representation, Reasoning and Declarative Problem Solving. Cambridge University Press.
Brewka G. and Eiter T. 2007. Equilibria in heterogeneous nonmonotonic multi-context systems. In AAAI. AAAI Press, 385390.
Calimeri F., Ianni G., and Ricca F. 2014. The third open answer set programming competition. Theory and Practice of Logic Programming 14, 1, 117135.
Davis M., Logemann G., and Loveland D. 1962. A machine program for theorem proving. Commun. ACM 5, 394397.
Eén N. and Biere A. 2005. Effective preprocessing in SAT through variable and clause elimination. In SAT. LNCS, vol. 3569. Springer, 6175.
Eén N. and Sörensson N. 2003a. An extensible SAT-solver. In SAT, Giunchiglia E. and Tacchella A., Eds. LNCS, vol. 2919. Springer, 502518.
Eén N. and Sörensson N. 2003b. Temporal induction by incremental sat solving. Electr. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 89, 4, 543560.
Eiter T. 2005. Data integration and answer set programming. In LPNMR, Baral C., Greco G., Leone N., and Terracina G., Eds. LNCS, vol. 3662. Springer, 1325.
Eiter T., Ianni G., Lukasiewicz T., Schindlauer R., and Tompits H. 2008. Combining answer set programming with description logics for the semantic web. Artif. Intell. 172, 12–13, 14951539.
Gaschnig J. 1979. Performance measurement and analysis of certain search algorithms. Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Technical Report CMU-CS-79–124.
Gebser M., Kaminski R., König A., and Schaub T. 2011. Advances in gringo series 3. In LPNMR, Delgrande J. P. and Faber W., Eds. LNCS, vol. 6645. Springer, 345351.
Gebser M., Kaufmann B., and Schaub T. 2012a. Conflict-driven answer set solving: From theory to practice. Artif. Intell. 187, 5289.
Gebser M., Kaufmann B., and Schaub T. 2012b. Multi-threaded ASP solving with clasp. Theory and Practice of Logic Programming 12, 45, 525545.
Gelfond M. and Kahl Y. 2014. Knowledge Representation, Reasoning, and the Design of Intelligent Agents: The Answer-Set Programming Approach. Cambridge University Press.
Gelfond M. and Lifschitz V. 1991. Classical negation in logic programs and disjunctive databases. New Generation Computing 9, 365385.
Gomes C. P., Selman B., and Kautz H. A. 1998. Boosting combinatorial search through randomization. In Proceedings of AAAI/IAAI 1998. AAAI Press, 431437.
Greco S. 2003. Binding propagation techniques for the optimization of bound disjunctive queries. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 15, 2 (March/April), 368385.
Janota M., Lynce I., and Marques-Silva J. 2014. Algorithms for computing backbones of propositional formulae. AI Commun. To appear.
Järvisalo M., Berre D. L., Roussel O., and Simon L. 2012. The international SAT solver competitions. AI Magazine 33, 1.
Kolaitis P. G., Pema E., and Tan W.-C. 2013. Efficient querying of inconsistent databases with binary integer programming. PVLDB 6, 6, 397408.
Leone N., Pfeifer G., Faber W., Eiter T., Gottlob G., Perri S., and Scarcello F. 2006. The DLV system for knowledge representation and reasoning. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 7, 3 (July), 499562.
Lierler Y. and Maratea M. 2004. Cmodels-2: SAT-based answer set solver enhanced to non-tight programs. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Logic Programming and Non-Monotonic Reasoning (LPNMR-7), Lifschitz V. and Niemelä I., Eds. LNAI, vol. 2923. Springer, 346350.
Lifschitz V. 2002. Answer set programming and plan generation. Artificial Intelligence 138, 3954.
Luby M., Sinclair A., and Zuckerman D. 1993. Optimal speedup of Las Vegas algorithms. Inf. Process. Lett. 47, 173180.
Manna M., Ricca F., and Terracina G. 2013. Consistent query answering via ASP from different perspectives: Theory and practice. Theory and Practice of Logic Programming 13, 2, 227252.
Maratea M., Ricca F., Faber W., and Leone N. 2008. Look-back techniques and heuristics in dlv: Implementation, evaluation, and comparison to qbf solvers. J. Algorithms 63, 1–3, 7089.
Marek V. W. and Truszczyński M. 1999. Stable models and an alternative logic programming paradigm. In The Logic Programming Paradigm – A 25-Year Perspective, Apt K. R., Marek V. W., Truszczyński M., and Warren D. S., Eds. Springer Verlag, 375398.
Marques-Silva J., Janota M., and Lynce I. 2010. On computing backbones of propositional theories. In ECAI, Coelho H., Studer R., and Wooldridge M., Eds. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 215. IOS Press, 1520.
Niemelä I. 1999. Logic programming with stable model semantics as constraint programming paradigm. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence 25, 3–4, 241273.
Ravi K. and Somenzi F. 2004. Minimal assignments for bounded model checking. In TACAS, Jensen K. and Podelski A., Eds. LNCS, vol. 2988. Springer, 3145.
Slaney J. K. and Walsh T. 2001. Backbones in optimization and approximation. In IJCAI, Nebel B., Ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 254259.
Zhang L., Madigan C. F., Moskewicz M. W., and Malik S. 2001. Efficient conflict driven learning in boolean satisfiability solver. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD 2001). 279–285.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Theory and Practice of Logic Programming
  • ISSN: 1471-0684
  • EISSN: 1475-3081
  • URL: /core/journals/theory-and-practice-of-logic-programming
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

ALVIANO et al.
Anytime Computation of Cautious Consequences in Answer Set Programming

 PDF (84 KB)
84 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 96 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.