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Marino Sanudo Torsello and the Lost Crusade: Lobbying in the Fourteenth Century The Alexander Prize Essay

  • C. J. Tyerman
Extract

At Avignon on 24 September 1321, a wealthy, middle-aged, well-connected and widely travelled Venetian merchant, Marino Sanudo, called Torsello, presented to Pope John XXII a book which he had been composing over the previous fifteen years, the Liber Secretorum (or Secreta) Fidelium Crucis, the book of the secrets of the faithful of the Cross. The full title explained the subject matter: the protection of the faithful, the conversion and destruction of the infidel and the acquisition and retention of the Holy Land in peace and security.

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1 Bongars, J., Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611), II, 12, 8, & 1–288 for the complete Secreta.

2 Finke, H., Papsttum void Untergang des Templerordens (Miinster, 1907), ii, p. 118; in general, Roulx, J. Delaville le, La France en Orient au xiv' siecle (Paris, 18851886), & Atiya, A. S., The Crusade in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1938).

3 Nogaret's first draft (Archives Nationales, Paris, [A.N.] J 456, no. 36/2bis) was savagely modified and rendered bland (A.N. J 456, no. 36/2).

4 Chronographia region Francorum (ed. Moranville, H., Paris 1891), I, 211; Chroniqueparisienne anonyme de 1316–1339 (ed. Hellot, A.), Memoires de la sociile de I'histoire de Paris et de File de France, xi\ (1884), 25–6.

5 E.g., A.N., JJ 49, nos. 50–52 (Edward II in 1313); J 561a, no. 24; J 562a, no. 8; J 562b, no. 30 (Flanders 1316–1319); Rotuli Parliamentarian, II, 64 (1332).

6 Roulx, Delaville le, France en Orient, ii, p. 5 (Villaret's letter of 11 Jan. 1311); Ronciere, C. de la, Une escadre franco-papale, Melanges d'archiologie et d'histoire, xiii (1893), 397418.

7 Lemerle, P., L'Emirat d'Aydin, Byzance et I'Occident (Paris, 1957), pp. 75101.

8 James of Verona, Liber peregrinationis (ed. Rohricht, R.), Revue de I'Orient Latin, iii (1895), 250.

9 Canon of Bridlington, Gesta Edwardi Tertii, Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I & II (ed. Stubbs, W., Series, Rolls), II, (London, 1883), 125–26, 131–33; Rymer, T., Foedera (London, 17041735), IV, 709, 710, 804–5.

10 Grandes ctironiques de France (ed. Viard, J.), IX (Paris, 1937), 4950.

11 Chronique parisiemu anonyme, 29–30, 46–47; A.N., K 1246 (for Guy of Blois' deal in 1333), and Le trisor des chartes d'Albret, ed. Marquette, J. -B. I, (Paris, 1973), 459–60, no. 400 (for Amaury of Lautrec's deal).

12 loTga, N., Philippe de Méziéres (Paris, 1896), pp. 71 (& n. 1), 73–4.

13 A. N., JJ58, no. 439.

14 A. N., JJ 58, no. 441 for the summons to ‘Houte de Grangon‘ in 1320.

15 Meyer, P., Documents manuscrits de I'andenne littfraturc de France (Paris, 1871), pp. 1718.

16 Musie des archives nationales (Paris, 1872), no. 328.

17 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 21; for Sanudo's career in general, Magnocavallo, A., Marino Sanudo il Vecchio e il progetto di crociata (Bergamo, 1901), passim, & Frankfort, F., Marino Sanudo Torsello, a Social Biography (unpublished Ph.D., University of Cincinnati, 1974), pp. 62130.

18 Magnocavallo, A., I codici del Liber Secretorum Fidelium Crucis, Renduonti del Istituto Lombardo di scienze e leltere, ser. 2, xxxi (1898), p. 1115.

19 Hopf, K., Chroniques Grico-Romanes (Berlin, 1873), p. 169.

20 Boase, T. S. R., Boniface VIII (London, 1933), pp. 341–51.

21 For Countess Mahaut's household, see Hillgarth, J. N., Ramon Lull & Lullism in Fourteenth-Century France (Oxford, 1971), pp. 169–70, & chs. iv–vi for le Myésier.

22 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 21; for the Conditiones, Magnocavallo, , ‘I codici’, pp. 1115–18.

23 Pirenne, H., Mahommed and Charlemagne (trans. London, 1939), p. 179.

24 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 23. This was taken from ch. 1 of the Conditiones (Magnocavallo, , ‘I codici’, p. 1115).

25 Magnocavallo, , Sanudo, p. 82; Hopf, , Chroniques, p. 167; Cerlini, A., Nuovere lettere di Marino Sanudo il Vecchio, La Bibliofilia, xlii (1940), 352; Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 34.

26 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 3, 71–3.

27 It reached Avignon on Trinity Sunday, 6 June (Finke, H., Ada Aragonensia (Berlin and Leipzig, 19081966), III, 400).

28 Kunstmann, F., ‘Studien äber Mann Sanudo’, Könighche Bayerischt Akademu dtr Wissenschaften. Abhandlungen Phil-Historische Classe, vii (1855), 787; Cerlini, , ‘Lettere, 359; Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 296.

29 Viard, J., Lesjoumaux du trisor de Charles IV le Bel (Paris 1917), p. lvi; Jean XXII: Lettres secretes et cunales relatives a la France, ed. al, A. Coulon et. (Paris 1900–), no. 1562

30 Ibid., nos. 1571–72; Jean XXII: Lettres communes, ed. Mollat, G. (Paris, 19041946), nos. 18142–49.

31 Petit, J., Charles de Valois (Paris, 1900), p. 201; Lettres secrites, no. 1575; Lettres communes, no. 18153.

32 Chronique parisienne anonymt, 77.

33 Lettres secretes, no. 1685.

34 Ibid., nos. 1683, 1685; Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris, [B.N.], MS nouveUe acquisition francaise 7600 fos. 1301–136V; Ordotmances des rots de France de la troisiime race (Paris, 1723–), I, 810–12; B.N., Collection Doat 16, fos. 141r–146r; A.N., K 41. no. 22.

35 Viard, , Joumaux du tresor, nos. 2755–6, 2897.

36 MB.N., nouv. acq. fr. 7373, fos. 12v, 148r-v; de la Ronciere, C., Histoire de la marine franfaise, i (Paris, 1889), p. 228 n. 1. Blanchi ran into trouble at the hands of a devious hirer in Marseilles (B.N., nouv. acq. fr. 7373, fos. 15r-17v).

37 Lettres secrites, nos. 1690–1709 & n. 34 above.

38 Ibid., no. 1710; cf. no. 1848 for the autumn negotiations.

39 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 788.

40 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 56, 7. It was presented to Charles IV in the presence of John of Bohemia, an active Baltic crusader (Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 788).

41 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 294, 296, 299, 300.

42 Ibid., II, 296.

43 Ibid., II, 296, 300.

44 A.N., J 1026, nos. 34, 34bis.

45 Sanudo made one convert in Avignon. In 1323, Cardinal Stefaneschi, a correspondent of Sanudo, alone of all his colleagues advocated Sanudo's scheme for an immediate flotilla of 10 galleys(Letlres secretes, no. 1703; Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 315–16 for the cardinal's later links with Sanudo).

46 Ibid., II, 5; cf. Lettressecretes, no. 1685.

47 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 297.

48 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 791–2, 797–8; Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 299300.

49 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 791–8.

50 de Nangis, Guillaume, Chronique latine avec les continuations, ed. Geraud, H. (Paris, 1843), II, 130.

51 E.g., B.N., MS latin 3293, fos. 162r–163r, 242r–243r.

52 Latrie, L. de Mas, Commerce et expeditions, Melanges historiques (Paris, 18731886), iii, 101–2.

53 Lettres communes, no. 61324, p. 224.

54 For Philip VI's plans and preparations mentioned here, Lettres secrites, nos. 5207–27; Roulx, Delaville le, France en Orient, ii, pp. 711; Latrie, Mas, ‘Commerce’, 99, 101; Viard, J., Lesjoumaux du trtsor de Philippe VI (Paris, 1899), p. lx; A.N., KK 5, passim; Jassemin, M., ‘Les papiers de Mile de Noyers’, Bulletin historique etphilologique (1918), 220–23; Merlin-Chazelas, A., Documents relatifs au Clos des Gaiées de Rouen, ii (Paris, 1978), pp. 1011; B.N., nouv.acq.fr. 7603, fos. 145r–146r; Huillard-Breholles, A., Titres de la maison ducale de Bourbon (Paris, 1867–1874), I, hos. 2041, 2082–3 and n. 10, above.

55 Benott XII: Lettres closes etpatentes intirissant les pays autres que la France, ed. Vidal, J. M. (Paris, 19131950), no. 786.

56 Magnocavallo, , Sanudo, pp. 150–4.

57 Laiou, A., ‘Marino Sanudo Torsello, Byzantium & the Turks’. Speculum, xlv (1970), 374–92.

58 For those who received Sanudo's works and his correspondents, Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 289316 (Epistolae); Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 753819; Cerlini, , ‘Lettere’, 321–59; Dorez, L. & de la Ronciere, C., ‘Lettres inédites de Marino Sanudo’, Bibliothéque de l'Ecole des Charles, lvi (1895), 2144.

59 For the details of Louis and the crusade, Chroniqtu parisierme anonyme, 25–6, 29–30, 102–3, 154; Boislisle, A. de, ‘Projet de croisade du premier due de Bourbon’, Extrait de l'AmuaireBulletindelaSociétié de l'HistoiredeFrance (1872), 248–55; A.N., JJ 56, no. 413;JJ 58, nos. 396–8; Lettres secrites nos. 1354, 5485; Jaillot, S., Recherches sur la ville de Paris, i (Paris, 1772), pp. 22–3; Latrie, Mas, ‘Commerce, 106–9; Huillard-Breholles, , Titres de Bourbon, I, nos. 2041, 2082–3.

60 Roucaute, J. & Saché, M., Actes de Philippe le Bel relatifs aupays de Givaudan (Mende, 1896), p. 141; no. 762; A.N., JJ 58, nos. 396–8; B.N., MS latin 7470, fos. 117r–123r; Golubovich, G., Biblioteca bio-bibliographica della Terra Santa, III (Quarrachi, 1919), 366–7 (the Moslem account of the 1330 mission); Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 765–66.

61 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 798.

62 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 289–90, 294; Cerlini, , ‘Lettere, 355, 357.

63 Ibid., 356. Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 798.

64 E.g. Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 290–1, 294–7, 297–8.

65 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 796; du Fresne, C., du Cange, seigneur, Families en Outremer, ed. Rey, E. G. (Paris, 1869), pp. 142–3. In 1330, Sanudo sent the French memorandum to Cardinal du Poyet (Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 788).

66 Dorez, & Ronciere, , ‘Lettres’, 44; Cerlini, , ‘Lettere’, 322–4.

67 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 297; Cerlini, , ‘Lettere’, 349.

68 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 303, 310.

69 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 791, n. 1.

70 Dubois, Pierre, The Recovery of the Holy Land, ed. Brandt, W. I. (New York, 1956), P. 199.

71 Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Tanner 190.

72 Finke, , Papsttum und Untergang des Templerordens, ii, p. 277; Paris, Geoffroi de, Chroniqiu Rimee, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, XXII, 135; Viard, , Joumaux du trisor, p. lvii; Lettres secretes, no. 1848.

73 Bodleian Library, MS Tanner 190, fos. 2V–3V, 203v–207r, 20gr–210v.

74 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 296; Frankfort, , Sanudo, p. 275. Prawer, , in his introduction to the Toronto 1972 reprint of the Bongars edition of the Secreta, argues (p. xviii) that Sanudo commissioned cartographers to draw his maps, including the Genoese, Pietro Vesconte.

75 Bodleian Library, MS Tanner 190, fos. 4r, 13V, 14r, 15r, 17V, 18r, 20v, 22r, 32V etc.

76 At least 19 manuscripts survive (Frankfort, , Sanudo, p. 213).

77 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 798.

78 Frankfort, , Sanudo, p. 275. From the alterations and additions in MS Tanner 190, it may be surmised that Sanudo also took a scribe with him on his travels. But the corpus of documents remained in Venice.

79 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 299; Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 799, 812, 815–16; Dorez, & Ronciere, , ‘Lettres’, 34, 35, 43, 44. Badin, for instance, visited Greece, Constantinople, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Cilician Armenia, Crete, Cyprus (where he enlisted the help of the king), Egypt (where he may have met the Sultan), Palestine and Syria before meeting Sanudo in Venice on his return in 1334. Sanudo sent Badin back to the French court to brief Louis of Clermont of affairs in the east. Badin was a sort of spy ( Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 812, 815–16).

80 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 294.

81 Cerlini, , ‘Lettere’, 355–6.

82 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 755–89.

83 Cerlini, , ‘Lettere’, 354–5.

84 Recueil des historiens des croisades: Documents Amrfniens, II (Paris, 1906), 253.

85 Cerlini, , ‘Lettere’, 348–9.

86 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 799808.

87 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 299.

88 Ibid.

89 Dorez, & Ronciere, , ‘Lettres’, 43.

90 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 806; Epstein, M. J., Ludovicus Deus Regnantium: Perspectives on the Rhymed Office, Speculum, liii (1978), 322.

91 E.g. Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 301–2.

92 Faucon, M., Marino Sanudo a Avignon, Melanges d'archiologie et d'histoire, ii (1882), 222–3 (for papal gifts of money and clothing in 1322); Viard, , Joumaux du trisor, no. 3177 (for 16 limes parisis given by Charles IV).

93 Petit, , Charles de Valois, p. 201.

94 Magnocavallo, , ‘I codici’, p. 1113; Prawer's introduction to the Secreta (Toronto, 1972), pp. vi–viii; Laiou, , ‘Sanudo, Byzantium & the Turks’, 374 & passim.

95 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 98, 301.

96 Laiou, , ‘Sanudo, Byzantium & the Turks’, 374.

97 Kunstmann, , ‘Studien’, 816 (Sanudo writing to the count of Hainault in 1334) ‘multa alia haberem explicare, si haberem subsidium expensarum… sed mea indigentia executionem impedit voluntatis’.

98 Cerlini, , ‘Lettere’, 350.

99 Note the miniatures of the Lion of St. Mark in MS Tanner 190, fo. 4r, at the head ofthe Secrtta.

100 Frankfort, , Sanudo, p. 128.

101 Magnocavallo, , Sanudo, pp. 150–4.

102 Delisle, L., Le cabinet des manuscrits de la Bibliothéque Nationale, III (Paris, 1881), p. 162.

103 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 297.

104 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 297.

105 Bongars, , Gesta Dei, II, 297.

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