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No Peace beyond what Line?

  • Garrett Mattingly (a1)

This inquiry began with some sentences in James A. Williamson's magnificent study Hawkins of Plymouth:

‘In peace or war in Europe', says Williamson, ‘there was no peace beyond the line. The phrase is often quoted by people who do not explain what line they mean. The Tropic of Cancer will not by itself answer the question, neither will the lines of demarcation. “Line” is in fact a misquotation which should be “lines”. The “lines of amity” were verbally agreed upon by the French and Spanish negotiators of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559. They were to be the Tropic of Cancer and the prime meridian passing through Ferro in the Canaries. On the European side of both lines the treaty was to be binding; west and south of them it was to be disregarded. The agreement was a belated recognition of what had long been the practice.’

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* Unhappily, Professor Mattingly died on 18 December 1962, shortly before this, his last paper, was set up in type. It has therefore been seen through the press by the Literary Director, who takes full responsibility for any errors which may have been introduced.

page 145 note 1 Williamson, J. A., Hawkins of Plymouth (London, 1949), p. 46.

page 147 note 1 Blake, John W., European Beginnings in West Africa (London, 1937), p. 160.

page 147 note 2 Davenport, Frances G., European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648 (Washington, D.C., 1917), pp. 219–21.

page 148 note 1 Today, Hierro.

page 148 note 2 No date, but apparently late January or early February 1614: Documentos Ineditos[para la Historia de España], New Series, iii (Madrid, 1944), pp. 179–80.

page 149 note 1 Documentos Ineditos, New Series, iii, p. 180.

page 149 note 2 Not quite correct. In the Treaty of Crépy, 1544, Francis I agreed to forbid his subjects to sail to the Indies, and so, in the Truce of Vaucelles, 1556, did Henri II (Davenport, , op. cit., pp. 205, 217). But both pacts were soon broken.

page 149 note 3 Documentos Ineditos, New Series, iii, pp. 181–82.

page 150 note 1 E.g. SirBurns, Allen, History of the British West Indies (London, 1954), p. 141.

page 150 note 2 Means, P. A., The Spanish Main (New York, 1935), p. 55

page 151 note 1 By Julius II's Ea Quae, dated 25 Jan. 1505/06.

page 153 note 1 Calendar of… State Papers, Spanish, i (Henry VII), pp. 68 ff.

page 153 note 2 Archive de Simancas, Estado, 2571: Zuñiga's instructions about Virginia, fo. 201; his report, fo. 208. It is odd that Zuñiga was not informed about, or at least did not mention, Spanish explorations around the Chesapeake in the early 1580's. See also Gondomar's later expostulations about the Virginia colony in Documentos Ineditos, New Series, iv, passim.

page 154 note 1 Commons Debates, 1621, ed. Notestein, W. and others (New Haven, 1935). iv, pp. 223–24.

page 154 note 2 Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, East Indies, China and Japan, 1513–1616, p. 10, no. 20 (1573); P. 93, no. 235 (? 1583).

page 154 note 3 Davenport, , op. cit., i, pp. 291, 313 and notes.

page 156 note 1 Trans. Roy. Hist. Soc., Fifth Series, i (1951), pp. 124.

page 156 note 2 E.g. Gondomar, 1614 (Documentos Ineditos, New Series, iv, p. 57); Archivo de Simancas, Estado, 2571, fos 201 ff. (1608); Claude Groulart, Mémoires (1600), in Michaud and Poujoulat, First Series, xi, p. 585; Henri IV to Sully (1604), cited by Davenport, op. cit., i, p. 221; Scaramelli to the Senate, 27 Jan. 1604 (Calendar of State Papers, Venitian, x, no. 184).

page 157 note 1 Newton, A. P., The European Nations in the West Indies (London, 1933), p. 335.

page 158 note 1 Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, America and West Indies, 1661–1668, no. 61 (1661); ibid., 1669–1674, nos 103 (1665–67), 280 (?1670); Burdon, J. A., Archives of British Honduras, i (London, 1931), with reference to the 1672 period.

page 159 note 1 Documentos Ineditos, New Series, iv, pp. 52–58.

page 160 note 1 Scaramelli to the Senate, 27 Jan. 1604/05 (Calendar of State Papers, Venitian, x, no. 184).

page 160 note 2 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1635, p. 600 (27 Dec. 1635).

page 160 note 3 The first in 1661 (Acts of the Privy Council of England, Colonial Series, i (1613–80), pp. 599 ff.).

page 160 note 4 In ? Sept. 1677 Matthew Love makes oath that, while he was a prisoner at Havana, two (other) English vessels were made prize there, that there were discourses of commissions granted against the English, and that he heard the governor say that there was no peace in the Indies, and that the Spaniards might take all they met (ibid., p. 718).

page 161 note 1 E.g. Exquemelin, A. O., De Amerkaensche Zee-Rovers (Amsterdam, 1678); first English version, 1684.

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