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Migration in the UNFCCC Workstream on Loss and Damage: An Assessment of Alternative Framings and Conceivable Responses

  • Benoit Mayer (a1)
Abstract

Discourses on ‘climate migration’ have played an instrumental role in initiating negotiations on loss and damage under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Yet, to date, the framing of climate migration has not been clear: it has been considered as a tool for reducing loss and damage (hence essentially a form of adaptation) or, alternatively, as a source of loss and damage for the migrants or for other concerned communities. Moreover, proposed approaches to address climate migration as a form of loss and damage have extended beyond compensation, and remain controversial among developed nations. In the highly politicized field of migration governance, however, this article submits that policy support and guidance in addressing loss and damage could prompt dangerous forms of political interference, such as the imposition of a Western objective of containing migrants to the Global South. It is thus suggested that top-down migration policies may not help vulnerable nations who face loss and damage in the context of climate migration.

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References
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1 For a review see, e.g., Morrissey, J., ‘Rethinking the “Debate on Environmental Refugees”: From “Maximilists and Minimalists” to “Proponents and Critics”’ (2012) 19 Journal of Political Ecology, pp. 3649 .

2 Foresight Agency, ‘Migration and Global Environmental Change: Final Project Report’, UK Government Office for Science, 2011, p. 9, available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/287717/11-1116-migration-and-global-environmental-change.pdf (Foresight Report).

3 New York, NY (US), 9 May 1992, in force 21 Mar. 1994, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cop15/eng/11a01.pdf.

4 Decision 1/CP.16, ‘The Cancún Agreements: Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention’, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1, 15 Mar. 2011, para. 14(f), available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.pdf.

5 Decision 3/CP.18, ‘Approaches to Address Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts in Developing Countries that are Particularly Vulnerable to the Adverse Effects of Climate Change to Enhance Adaptive Capacity’, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2012/l.4/Rev.1, 8 Dec. 2012, para. 7(a)(vi), available at: http://unfccc.int/documentation/documents/advanced_search/items/6911.php?priref=600007270; Decision 1/CP.21, ‘Adoption of the Paris Agreement’, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2015/L.9, 12 Dec. 2015, para. 50, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/cop21/eng/l09.pdf.

6 UNFCCC Secretariat, ‘A Literature Review on the Topics in the Context of Thematic Area 2 of the Work Programme on Loss and Damage: A Range of Approaches to Address Loss and Damage Associated with the Adverse Effects of Climate Change’, UN Doc. FCCC/SBI/2012/INF.14, 15 Nov. 2012, para. 2, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2012/sbi/eng/inf14.pdf (UNFCCC Literature Review).

7 Cf. Decision 2/CP.19, ‘Warsaw International Mechanism [WIM] for Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts’, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2014/L.2, 31 Jan. 2014, recital 5 (‘loss and damage … includes, and in some cases involves more than that which can be reduced by adaptation’), available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2013/cop19/eng/10a01.pdf.

8 If climate change increases the probability of certain weather events, it does not create weather events of a different nature.

9 Pall, P. et al., ‘Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Contribution to Flood Risk in England and Wales in Autumn 2000’ (2011) 470(7334) Nature, pp. 382385 . See, however, Hulme, M., ‘Attributing Weather Extremes to “Climate Change”: A Review’ (2014) 38(4) Progress in Physical Geography, pp. 499511 .

10 Lawyers have developed relevant reflections on the attribution of injury, in particular in the common law of tort, the civil law of extra-contractual responsibility, and the international law of state responsibility for internationally wrongful acts.

11 For a dated but strong theoretical discussion see Chimni, B.S., ‘The Geopolitics of Refugee Studies: A View from the South’ (1998) 11(4) Journal of Refugee Studies, pp. 350374 .

12 For an influential example see Lee, A., ‘Theory of Migration’ (1966) 3(1) Demography, pp. 4757 .

13 See generally Piguet, E., ‘From “Primitive Migration” to “Climate Refugees”: The Curious Fate of the Natural Environment in Migration Studies’ (2013) 103(1) Annals of the Association of American Geographers, pp. 148162 .

14 See generally Mayer, B., ‘“Environmental Migration” as Advocacy: Is It Going to Work?’ (2014) 29(2) Refuge, pp. 2741 .

15 Decision 1/CP.13, ‘Bali Action Plan’, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1, 14 Mar. 2008, para. 1(c), available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/cop13/eng/06a01.pdf.

16 Warner, K., ‘Human Migration and Displacement in the Context of Adaptation to Climate Change: The Cancún Adaptation Framework and Potential for Future Action’ (2012) 30(6) Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, pp. 10611077 .

17 Decision 1/CP.16, n. 4 above, para. 14(f). The Cancún Agreements do not contain any definition of ‘migration’ and ‘displacement’. A subsequent UNFCCC technical paper reflects a general understanding that ‘migration tends to refer to voluntary movement, while displacement tends to refer to forced movement’: UNFCCC Secretariat, Technical Paper, ‘Non-Economic Losses in the Context of the Work Programme on Loss and Damage’, UN Doc. FCCC/TP/2013/2, 9 Oct. 2013, para. 82, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2013/tp/02.pdf (UNFCCC Technical Paper).

18 Adaptation remains heavily underfunded in comparison with migration: see, e.g., B Buchner et al., ‘The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2014’, Climate Policy Initiative, Nov. 2014, available at: http://climatepolicyinitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/The-Global-Landscape-of-Climate-Finance-2014.pdf.

19 Warner, K. et al., ‘National Adaptation Plans and Human Mobility’ (2015) 49 Forced Migration, pp. 89 .

20 Warner, n. 16 above, p. 1066.

21 The responsibility of Western states had already been invoked by developing states in the Caracas Declaration of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Group of 77 on the Occasion of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the Group, 21–23 June 1989, para. II-34, available at: http://www.g77.org/doc/Caracas%20Declaration.html.

22 Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), 3–14 June 1992, ‘Statements by the Heads of State or Government at the Summit Segment of the Conference’, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26/Rev.1(Vol. III), p. 233.

23 UNFCCC Secretariat, ‘Negotiation of a Framework Convention on Climate Change: Elements Relating to Mechanisms’, UN Doc. A/AC.237/WG.II/CRP.8, 27 Dec. 1991, Submission by Vanuatu, ‘Draft Annex relating to Insurance’, p. 2. For a comparable proposal to the AWG-LCA, see UNFCCC Secretariat, ‘Ideas and Proposals on the Elements Contained in Paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan: Submissions from Parties’, UN Doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/Misc.5/Add.2 (Part I), 10 Dec. 2008, AOSIS Submission, ‘Multi-Window Mechanism to Address Loss and Damage from Climate Change Impacts’, p. 24 (AOSIS 2008 Submission).

24 UNFCCC, n. 3 above, Art 4(4).

25 Bodansky, D., ‘The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: A Commentary’ (1993) 18 Yale Journal of International Law, pp. 451558 , at 528.

26 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007 (AR4) (IPCC, 2007), available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml; Stern, N., The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2007).

27 Decision 1/CP.13, n. 15 above, para. 1(c)(iii).

28 Warner, K. & Zakieldeen, S., ‘Loss and Damage due to Climate Change: An Overview of the UNFCCC Negotiations’, European Capacity Building Initiative, 2012, p. 4 , available at: http://www.oxfordclimatepolicy.org/publications/documents/LossandDamage.pdf.

29 Decision 1/CP.16, n. 4 above, paras 26 and 25, n. 3.

30 Ibid., para. 25.

31 Ibid., para. 25, n. 3.

32 Decision 1/CP 16, n. 4 above.

33 Decision 7/CP.17, ‘Work Programme on Loss and Damage’, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.2, 30 Mar. 2012, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2011/cop17/eng/09a02.pdf.

34 Decision 3/CP.18, n. 5 above, para. 5.

35 Decision 2/CP.19, n. 7 above, para. 1.

36 Decision 2/CP.20, ‘WIM for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts’, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2014/10/Add.2, 2 Feb. 2015, para. 5, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2014/cop20/eng/10a02.pdf.

37 UNFCCC Secretariat, ‘Report of the Executive Committee of the WIM for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts’, UN Doc. FCCC/SB/2014/4, 24 Oct. 2014, Annex II; and Decision 2/CP.20, ibid., para. 1.

38 See, e.g., the informal note of the Co-Chairs, ‘Reflections on Progress Made at the Fourth Part of the Second Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action’, ADP.2014.3.InformalNote, 17 Apr. 2014, p. 12, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2014/adp2/eng/3infnot.pdf (which reflects the demand of some parties to include in the Paris Agreement ‘[a] specific commitment to provide support for financing and operationalization of the WIM for Loss and Damage’). See also AOSIS, ‘Submission of Nauru on behalf of AOSIS on its View on Loss and Damage in the 2015 Agreement’, 4 Nov. 2014, p. 1, available at: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/Lists/OSPSubmissionUpload/118_99_130596590736299152-AOSIS%20Submission%20on%20Loss%20and%20Damage_NOV2014.pdf (AOSIS Nauru Submission) (noting that ‘[i]mmediate financial, technical and capacity building support that is adequate, provided on a timely basis and truly accessible will be required to address loss and damage in SIDS [small island developing states]. Financial flows from developed countries for addressing loss and damage in vulnerable developing countries should be new and additional to financing for mitigation and adaptation’).

39 See generally Foresight Report, n. 2 above.

40 This is apparent in, for instance, the arguments framed in the Submission of ‘Nauru on behalf of AOSIS: Views and Information on Elements to be Included in the Recommendations on Loss and Damage in accordance with Decision 1/CP.16’, UN Doc. FCCC/SBI/2012/MISC.14, 8 Oct. 2012, p. 9, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2012/sbi/eng/misc14.pdf; and AOSIS 2008 Submission, n. 23 above, para. 92.

41 Decision 3/CP.18, n. 5 above, para. 7(a)(vi).

42 Report of the Executive Committee of the WIM, n. 37 above, Annex II, p. 11.

43 UNFCCC Secretariat, Technical Paper, ‘Slow Onset Events’, UN Doc. FCCC/TP/2012/7, 26 Nov. 2012, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2012/tp/07.pdf.

44 UNFCCC Technical Paper, n. 17 above, paras 82–6.

45 UNFCCC Literature Review, n. 6 above, paras 110, 130. ‘Migration’ was one of the keywords selected by the Secretariat to conduct a literature review: ibid., para. 4.

46 Huq, S., Roberts, E.L. & Fenton, A., ‘Loss and Damage’ (2013) 3(11) Nature Climate Change, pp. 947949 , at 948 (‘Developing countries need guidance and support to implement approaches to … address those impacts that cannot be avoided with a broader set of tools that may include risk transfer and risk retention measures, as well as policies to promote migration and facilitate resettlement’); and Warner, n. 16 above.

47 See the Submission of Bolivia (on behalf of Ecuador, China, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, the Philippines, and Thailand) and Ghana, UN Doc. FCCC/SBI/2012/MISC.14/Add.1, 19 Nov. 2012, pp. 5 and 30, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2012/sbi/eng/misc14a01.pdf.

48 E.g., Climate Action Network, ‘Submission on the Workplan of the WIM on Loss & Damage’, 2 June 2014, para. 6, available at: http://climatenetwork.org/sites/default/files/can_submission_on_workplan_for_ld_mechanism__0.pdf; ACT Alliance, ‘Annual Report 2014 – Full Life and Dignity: Justice Ahead for All in a Challenging Climate’, available at: http://actalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/ACT-Alliance-annual-report-2014.pdf; Brot für die Welt (Bread for the World), ‘Submission on Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change’, 2012, p. 2, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2012/smsn/ngo/265.pdf.

49 See, e.g., Joint Submission from the Advisory Group on Climate Change and Human Mobility (International Organization for Migration (IOM), UNDP, UNHCR, UN University Institute for Environment and Human Security, Norwegian Refugee Council, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Sciences-Po CERI, and Refugees International), 1 July 2014, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/542e94e69.pdf; Joint Submission by UNHCR, UN University, Norwegian Refugee Council, Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, and IOM, 19 Oct. 2012, UN Doc. FCCC/SBI/2012/MISC.14/Add.1, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2012/sbi/eng/misc14a01.pdf.

50 See ‘Submission of Nepal on behalf of the Least Developed Countries Group’, 21 Oct. 2014, p. 4, available at: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/Lists/OSPSubmissionUpload/39_99_130584499817551043-Submission%20by%20Nepal%20ADP_21%20Oct%202014.pdf; ADP, 2nd Session, Pt 10, Working Document E, 3 Sept. 2015 at 23:30, p. 1, available at: https://unfccc.int/files/bodies/awg/application/pdf/adp2-10_e_03sep2015t2330_wds.pdf. See generally Wentz, J. & Burger, M., ‘Designing a Climate Change Displacement Coordination Facility: Key Issues for COP 21’ (Columbia Law School, Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, Sept. 2015).

51 C. Arenas, ‘A Climate Change Displacement Coordination Facility in the Paris Draft Agreement’, Displacement Solutions, 6 Nov. 2015, available at: http://displacementsolutions.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Climate-change-displacement-coordination-facility.pdf.

52 Decision 1/CP.21, n. 5 above, para. 50.

53 Ibid., para. 52.

54 See, e.g., ‘Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants, François Crépeau, to the General Assembly’, UN Doc. A/67/299, 13 Aug. 2012, available at: http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/67/299.

55 See, e.g., Penna, A.N., The Human Footprint: A Global Environmental History (Wiley, 2010); Burroughs, W.J., Climate Change in Prehistory: The End of the Reign of Chaos (Cambridge University Press, 2005); Fang, Jin-Qi & Liu, Guo, ‘Relationship between Climatic Change and the Nomadic Southward Migrations in Eastern Asia during Historical Times’ (1992) 22(2) Climatic Change, pp. 151168 ; Pederson, N. et al., ‘Pluvials, Droughts, the Mongol Empire, and Modern Mongolia’ (2014) 111(12) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp. 43754379 ; Parker, G., Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century (Yale University Press, 2013).

56 ‘Submission by Gambia on behalf of the Least Developed Countries Group on Loss and Damage’ (2013), p. 2, available at: https://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/application/pdf/submission_by_the_gambia_on_behalf_of_the_least_developed_countries_on_loss_and_damage.pdf (referring to S. Yaffa, ‘Loss and Damage from Drought in the North Bank Region of The Gambia’, UN University Institute for Environment and Human Security, 2013).

57 UNFCCC Literature Review, n. 6 above, para. 110 (referring to Scheffran, J., Marmer, E. & Sow, P., ‘Migration as a Contribution to Resilience and Innovation in Climate Adaptation: Social Networks and Co-development in Northwest Africa’ (2012) 33(1) Applied Geography, pp. 119127 ).

58 UNFCCC Literature Review, ibid., para. 130.

59 See, e.g., ‘Submission of Norway, Work Programme on Approaches to Address Loss and Damage’, UN Doc. FCCC/SBI/2012/MISC.14, 2 Oct. 2012, p. 14 (noting the need to ‘reaffirm, rather than duplicate, efforts already undertaken to support activities that address loss and damage associated with climate change’). See also ‘Warsaw Establishes International Mechanism for Loss and Damage’ (2013) 279/280 Third World Resurgence, pp. 15–8.

60 N. 4 above.

61 Decision 2/CP.19, n. 7 above, recital 5 (emphasis added).

62 See, e.g., International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, New York, NY (US), 18 Dec. 1990, in force 1 July 2003, available at: https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-13&chapter=4&lang=en (recital 10: ‘Considering the situation of vulnerability in which migrant workers and members of their families frequently find themselves owing, among other things, to their absence from their state of origin and to the difficulties they may encounter arising from their presence in the State of employment’); Weissbrodt, D., The Human Rights of Non-Citizens (Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 241 ; Crépeau, F., ‘Dealing with Migration: A Test for Democracies’ (2010) 35 Refugee Watch, pp. 3750 .

63 See, e.g., the many cases gathered in Whiteman, M., Damages in International Law I (US Government, 1937), pp. 418483 .

64 Agreement between the Polish People’s Republic and the Czechoslovak Republic concerning the Settlement of Outstanding Property Matters, Prague (Czechoslovakia), 29 Mar. 1958, in force 9 Jan. 1959, Art. 5(1), available at: https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20340/v340.pdf.

65 UN SC Resolution 687, UN Doc. S/RES/687, 8 Apr. 1991, para. 16, available at: http://www.un.org/Depts/unmovic/documents/687.pdf.

66 Decision 7 of the Governing Council of the UN Compensation Commission taken during its Third Session, ‘Criteria for Additional Categories of Claims’, UN Doc. S/AC.26/1991/7/Rev.1, 17 Mar. 1992, para. 6(b), available at: http://www.uncc.ch/sites/default/files/attachments/S-AC.26-DEC%207%20-%20Rev%201%20%5B1992%5D.pdf.

67 UNFCCC Literature Review, n. 6, para. 195.

68 Ibid., paras 139, 162(b).

69 Climate Action Network, ‘Submission on the Work Programme on Loss and Damage’, 22 Aug. 2011, p. 2, available at: http://www.climatenetwork.org/sites/default/files/CAN_submission_loss_and_damage__Aug2011.pdf (CAN 2011 Submission).

70 UNFCCC Technical Paper, n. 17 above, para. 83.

71 Ibid.

72 Ibid (emphasis added).

73 The violence inherent in migration control was elegantly critiqued in Carens, J., ‘Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders’ (1987) 49(2) The Review of Politics, pp. 251273 , at 251 (‘Borders have guards and the guards have guns’).

74 Decision 1/CP.21, n. 5 above, Annex, recital 11.

75 See, e.g., Clemens, M., ‘Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?’ (2011) 25(3) Journal of Economic Perspectives, pp. 83106 .

76 See, e.g., Czaika, M., ‘A Refugee Burden Index: Methodology and its Application’ (2005) 2(2) Migration Letters, pp. 101125 ; Barutciski, M. & Suhrke, A., ‘Lessons from the Kosovo Refugee Crisis: Innovations in Protection and Burden-Sharing’ (2001) 14(2) Journal of Refugee Studies, pp. 95134 ; Alix-Garcian, J. & Saah, D., ‘The Effect of Refugee Inflows on Host Communities: Evidence from Tanzania’ (2010) 24(1) The World Bank Economic Review, pp. 148170 .

77 Geneva (Switzerland), 28 Jul. 1951, in force 22 Apr. 1954, recital 5, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.html.

78 See generally Gottwald, M., ‘Burden Sharing and Refugee Protection’, in E. Fiddian-Qasmiyey et al. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies (Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 525537 . See also the Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 10 Sept. 1969, in force 20 June 1974, Art. 2(4), available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b36018.html.

79 UN SC Resolution 688 (1991), UN Doc. S/RES/0688 (1991), 5 Apr. 1991. available at: http://fas.org/news/un/iraq/sres/sres0688.htm. See generally Mogire, E., Victims as Security Threats: Refugee Impact on Host State Security in Africa (Ashgate, 2013), pp. 2426 .

80 Lord Robertson of Port Ellen, Secretary General of NATO, ‘Kosovo One Year On: Achievement and Challenge’, NATO, 2000, p. 5, available at: http://www.nato.int/kosovo/repo2000/report-en.pdf.

81 See, in particular, Chimni, B.S., ‘The Birth of a “Discipline”: From Refugee to Forced Migration Studies’ (2009) 22(1) Journal of Refugee Studies, pp. 1129 .

82 Luxembourg Agreement between Germany and Israel, Luxembourg, 10 Sept. 1952, in force 27 Mar. 1953, recital 3, available at: https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20162/volume-162-I-2137-English.pdf.

83 See, e.g., Giustiniani, F.Z., ‘The Obligations of the State of Origin of Refugees: An Appraisal of a Traditionally Neglected Issue’ (2015) 30 Connecticut Journal of International Law, pp. 171208 , at 173–6.

84 See references cited in nn. 134 and 135 below, and accompanying text.

85 See references cited in n. 40 above.

86 Climate Change and Humanitarian Crises, ‘The Open Letter: Now is the Time to Act’ (open letter to Fabius, L. and Moon, Ban Ki, signed by Care International and other NGOs), Sept. 2015, available at: http://climateandcrises.com/open-letter .

87 See generally the review in Mayer, n. 14 above.

88 IOM Council, ‘IOM Strategy’, Resolution 1150 (XCIII), MC/INF/287, 9 Nov. 2007, Annex, Pt 1, para. 9, note, available at: https://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/about_iom/docs/res1150_en.pdf (IOM Strategy Document).

89 IOM Strategy Document, ibid., Pt 1, para. 3.

90 Ibid., para. 3.

91 See, e.g., references listed at n. 49 above.

92 ‘Input of the IOM to a Review of Existing Institutional Arrangements and Measures in Addressing Loss and Damage Conducted by the UNFCCC Secretariat’, 2013, p. 2, available at: http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/cancun_adaptation_framework/loss_and_damage/application/pdf/iom.pdf.

93 See, e.g., IOM Migration Crisis Operational Framework, MC/2355, 15 Nov. 2012, available at: https://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/What-We-Do/docs/MC2355_-_IOM_Migration_Crisis_Operational_Framework.pdf.

94 See generally IOM, ‘Migration Initiatives 2015: Regional Strategies, Migrants and Cities’, 2014, e.g. pp. 63 (Namibia) and 187 (Marshall Islands), available at: http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/migration_initiatives2015.pdf.

95 Decision 1/CP.21, n. 5 above, para. 50 (emphasis added).

96 Ibid., Annex, Art. 8.1 (emphasis added).

97 Decision 1/CP.20, ‘Lima Call for Climate Action’, 11 Dec. 2014, para. 33.3, available at: https://unfccc.int/files/meetings/lima_dec_2014/application/pdf/auv_cop20_lima_call_for_climate_action.pdf.

98 Ibid.

99 Input of the IFRC to a review of existing institutional arrangements and measures in addressing loss and damage conducted by the UNFCCC Secretariat (2013), available at: http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/cancun_adaptation_framework/loss_and_damage/application/pdf/ifrc.pdf (IFRC Input).

100 IFRC, ‘Strategy 2020: Saving Lives, Changing Minds’, 2010, p. 19, available at: http://www.ifrc.org/Global/Publications/general/strategy-2020.pdf. A similar approach was developed in ‘Report by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants’, n. 54 above.

101 See, e.g., Biermann, F. & Boas, I., ‘Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees’ (2010) 10(1) Global Environmental Politics, pp. 6088 ; CRIDEAU, , ‘Draft Convention on the International Status of Environmentally Displaced Persons’ (2008) 39 Revue de Droit de l’Université de Sherbrooke, pp. 451505 ; Hodgkinson, D. et al., ‘The Hour When the Ship Comes In: A Convention for Persons Displaced by Climate Change’ (2010) 36(1) Monash University Law Review, pp. 69120 ; Docherty, B. & Giannini, T., ‘Confronting a Rising Tide: A Proposal for a Convention on Climate Change Refugees’ (2009) 33(2) Harvard Environmental Law Review, pp. 349403 .

102 See the official website of the Nansen Initiative at: https://www.nanseninitiative.org. See also Kälin, W., ‘From the Nansen Principles to the Nansen Initiative’ (2012) 41 Forced Migration Review, pp. 4849 .

103 Displacement Solutions, ‘The Peninsula Principles on Climate Displacement within States’, 18 Aug. 2013, Principle 12, available at: http://displacementsolutions.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Peninsula-Principles.pdf.

104 The proposal for a ‘climate change migration coordination facility’ was, for instance, strongly opposed by the government of Australia: Milman, O., ‘UN Drops Plan to Help Move Climate-Change Affected People’, The Guardian, 7 Oct. 2015, available at: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/oct/07/un-drops-plan-to-create-group-to-relocate-climate-change-affected-people .

105 Foresight Report, n. 2 above, p. 9, Executive Summary (noting that ‘the range and complexity of the interactions between these drivers means that it will rarely be possible to distinguish individuals for whom environmental factors are the sole driver (“environmental migrants”)’).

106 Betts, A., Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement (Cornell University Press, 2013), p. 17 (‘Whether someone’s displacement is predominantly attributable to environmental change, state fragility, or livelihoods collapse is unimportant from a human rights perspective’).

107 For alternative forms see, e.g., Betts, ibid.; ‘Protection of Persons in the Events of Disasters: Text and Titles of the Draft Articles’, UN Doc. A/CN.4/L.831, 15 May 2015, available at: http://legal.un.org/docs/?symbol=A/CN.4/L.831.

108 See generally Mayer, B., ‘Environmental Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region: Could We Hang Out Sometime?’ (2013) 3(1) Asian Journal of International Law, pp. 101135 .

109 IFRC Input, n. 99 above.

110 AOSIS Nauru Submission, n. 38 above. See also Huq, Roberts & Fenton, n. 46 above, p. 948 (noting that ‘for many developing countries – especially for small island developing states – [compensation] is an important element of the agenda’).

111 CAN 2011 Submission, n. 69 above, p. 2 (calling for ‘a mandate to explore compensation options for loss and damage caused by climate change’).

112 Data on GHG emissions per country can be accessed from the World Resources Institute’s Climate Data Explorer, available at: http://cait2.wri.org.

113 See, however, the statement made by the US on Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (adopted by UNCED, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), 3–14 June 1992, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26/Rev.1 (Vol. I), 14 June 1992, available at: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm) in UNCED Report: Proceedings of the Conference, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26/Rev.1(Vol. II) (1992), p. 17 (‘The United States does not accept any interpretation of principle 7 that would imply a recognition or acceptance by the United States of any international obligations or liabilities, or any diminution in the responsibilities of developing countries’).

114 Decision 1/CP.16, n. 4 above, recital 2, para. 36. See also UNFCCC, n. 3 above, recital 4.

115 See, e.g., Mayer, B., ‘State Responsibility and Climate Change Governance: A Light Through the Storm’ (2014) 13(3) Chinese Journal of International Law, pp. 539575 ; Voigt, C., ‘State Responsibility for Climate Change Damages’ (2008) 77 Nordic Journal of International Law, pp. 122 .

116 Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, 2001, Art. 31, available at: http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/commentaries/9_6_2001.pdf.

117 Ibid., Art. 34.

118 Ibid., commentary to Art. 31, n. (10).

119 See discussion in Hulme, n. 9 above, p. 507.

120 See, e.g., Pall et al., n. 9 above.

121 Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States, n. 116 above, commentary to Art. 36, n. (5).

122 See, e.g., the informal note by the Co-Chairs, ‘Scenario Note on the Tenth Part of the Second Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action’, ADP.2015.4.InformalNote, 24 July 2015, p. 32, on a proposal for the creation of a mechanism to ‘establish procedures for coordinating compensation measures’, available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/adp2/eng/4infnot.pdf.

123 Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States, n. 116 above, Art. 34.

124 See references cited in nn. 63–66 above.

125 See n. 82 above.

126 Decision 1/CP.16, n. 4 above, para. 14(f).

127 Huq, Roberts & Fenton, n. 46 above, p. 948.

128 Millar, I., Gascoigne, C. & Caldwell, E., ‘Making Good the Loss: An Assessment of the Loss and Damage Mechanism under the UNFCCC Process’, in M. Gerrard & G. Wannier (eds), Threatened Island Nations, Legal Implications of Rising Seas and a Changing Climate (Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 433472 , at 435.

129 Submission of Nepal, n. 50, p. 4.

130 See, e.g., Wyman, K., ‘Responses to Climate Migration’ (2013) 37(1) Harvard Environmental Law Review, pp. 167216 .

131 See references listed in n. 101 above.

132 See, e.g., the discussions gathered in Leckie, S. (ed.), Land Solutions for Climate Displacement (Routledge, 2014).

133 Thus, the US accepted the resettlement of numerous Vietnamese refugees following the Vietnam war, yet without explicitly recognizing a specific responsibility: Carens, J., ‘Who Should Get In? The Ethics of Immigration Admissions’ (2003) 17(1) Ethics and International Affairs, pp. 95110 , at 100.

134 Castles, S., ‘Towards a Sociology of Forced Migration and Social Transformation’ (2003) 37(13) Sociology, pp. 1334 , at 18. See also Souter, J., ‘Towards a Theory of Asylum as Reparation for Past Injustice’ (2014) 62(2) Political Studies, pp. 326342 ; Souter, J., ‘Durable Solutions as Reparation for the Unjust Harms of Displacement: Who Owes What to Refugees?’ (2014) 27(2) Journal of Refugee Studies, pp. 171190 .

135 Cf. Souter, ‘Durable Solutions as Reparation’, ibid., p. 175.

136 Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States, n. 116 above, Art. 35.

137 Ibid., Art. 36 and commentary to Art. 36, n. (4). Cf. Souter, ‘Durable Solutions as Reparation’, n. 134 above, p. 176.

138 Hil, R., ‘Climate Change, Population Movements and Governance: Case Studies in Response Mechanisms’, in T. Cadman (ed.), Climate Change and Global Policy Regimes: Towards Institutional Legitimacy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), pp. 187201 , at 189.

139 For a similar argument against an instrument for the protection of internally displaced persons, see the remarks of Hathway, J., ‘Discussion’ (1996) 90 Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law, pp. 558584 , at 562.

140 See generally UNGA Resolution, ‘Declaration on the Right to Development’, UN Doc. A/Res/41/128, 4 Dec. 1986, available at: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/41/a41r128.htm.

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Transnational Environmental Law
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